The iIIRG 11th Annual ConferencePorto1

Welcome to Porto!

UCP_FEP_RGB-EN-V-300x227This year’s conference takes place at the Portuguese Catholic University in Porto, Portugal, and will be of interest to all professionals (academic researchers, law enforcement agencies, Government and International bodies, Judges, lawyers & students) involved in the investigation of crime and misconduct, the interviewing of victims, witnesses & suspected offenders (including ‘subjects’ and ‘insiders’), interview training and policy, interview decision-making processes, detecting deception, forensic linguistics, and high interest detainees.


Porto2-300x200The 2018 Conference and Masterclass offers delegates a diverse programme of professional and leisure activities in the beautiful surroundings of Porto. Two Masterclasses will be running: one on evidence-based best practice in conducting, coding and evaluating child forensic interviews; and the other on the role of investigative interviewing in judicial decision making.  Additionally, we will be hearing fascinating keynotes from a number of international speakers, and the presentations will span multiple disciplines and justice systems. Delegates will enjoy a unique array of social activities including our conference dinner on the Thursday evening.


  • If you are using a PowerPoint presentation when you present your paper or session during the conference, you will need to bring it on a USB stick or hard drive (Windows-compatible). It would be wise to bring a backup version as well.
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    • Wifi:
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Tuesday 3rd July, 2018
7:00pm Conference Welcome Reception
The Catholic University of Porto
DAY ONE – Wednesday 4th July, 2018
8:00am Registration – The Catholic University of Porto
9:00am Conference Opening and Welcome by Directors of iIIRG
9:30am Keynote
Professor Irit Hershkowitz
10:45am Topic Talk Number One
11:10am Topic Talk Number Two
11:35am Topic Talk Number Three
Parallel sessions
Room? Room? Room?
Chair: Fiona Gabbert Chair: Robert Horselenberg Chair: Carolina Navarro
1:00pm Fiona Gabbert, Gordon Wright, Lorraine Hope, Will Webster, & Gary Pankhurst: The benefits of rapport and empathy in information gathering contexts. David Zulawski: Non-confrontational interrogation. David Glasgow: What makes a good interview aid? Evidence from the research and development of a symbol supported interviewing toolkit.
1:20pm Maurizio Sovino, Sofía Huerta, & Carolina Navarro: Investigative interviewing of children and adolescents in Chile: describing evolving practice.
1:40pm Linda Geven, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Saul Kassin, Merel Kindt, & Bruno Verschuere: Only the guilty would confess? Memory detection as a forensic tool to evaluate the veracity of a confession. Marilena Kyriakidou, Mark Blades, Julie Cherryman, & Stephanie Christophorou: The impact of investing in the Good Interviewers policy of practice (IGIpop) on police interviews with children in Cyprus.
2:00pm Melanie Dawn Douglass, & Rashid Minhas: Exploring the thematic content of confession decisions made during a choice-blindness paradigm. Carolina Navarro, Martine Powell, Tess Knight, & Stefanie Sharman: Use of the SIM Protocol by Chilean interviewers: an evaluation.
2:20pm David Thompson: Practical perspectives to identify the truth. Catalina Fernández, Carolina Puyol Wilson, Asunción Luksic Zilliani, Rocío Acosta Delgado, Francisco García Turchan, Diego Izquierdo Coronel, Pedro Toledo Foschetti, Ignacia Humenyi Urzúa, Patricia Muñoz García, & Cristián Alvarez Borie: Factors that influence practitioners’ interviewing performance – The Implementation of Videotaped Investigative Interviewing in Chile.
2:40pm Camille Srour, Jacques Py, Chloé Grimaud, & Solène Roche: “Liars are less detailed…so what?” Comparing second recall instructions to better detect deception with a within-subject method.
Parallel sessions
Room? Room? Room?
Chair: Fiona Gabbert Chair: Robert Horselenberg Chair: Marilena Kyriakidou
3:30pm Olivia Gomes Bell: Legal challenges to children’s evidence in Scotland: An evaluation of case studies. Nicole Adams-Quackenbush, Sanne Wind, Robert Horselenberg, & Peter van Koppen: Detecting Bias in Police Suspect Interviews: A linguistic approach. Gregory Phillips, Clair Nunn-Furzey, & Steven Longford: Professional Enquiry one year on – getting away from linear models of teaching interview.
3:50pm Naoko Yamada-Furuta, Makoto Ibusuki, Yuko Yamasaki, & Ryota Kitamura: Anatomy of the visual recording from the multiple disciplinary approaches.
4:10pm End of Presentations Day One
5:00pm Porto Downtown Visit – Porto Wine Cellar’s & Douro River Boat Trip

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DAY TWO – Thursday 5th July, 2018
8:00am Registration – The Catholic University of Porto
9:00am Keynote Address: David La Rooy, Royal Holloway, University of London.
Chair: Trond Myklebust
Parallel sessions
Room? Room? Room?
Chair: Fiona Gabbert Chair: Marte Lefsaker Sakrisvold Chair: Anu Aromäki-Stratos
9:50am Gary Dalton, Lorraine Hope, & Rebecca Milne: The utility of a self-generated cue mnemonic instruction to facilitate enhanced recall. Mark Snow, & Joseph Eastwood: Examining the impact of corroborator age on alibi assessment. Anu Aromäki-Stratos: Written reports of child abuse investigations viewed by prosecutors and judges.
10:10am Alessandra Caso, Fiona Gabbert, Donata Tamonyte, Penny Woolnough, & Joe Apps: Examining the efficacy of a self report form in missing persons investigations. Marthe Lefsaker Sakrisvold, Erik Mac-Giolla, Timothy Luke, & Pär-Anders Granhag: Examining the use of weak vs. memory-enhancing interview techniques with honest and deceptive alibi witnesses. Paulo Marques & Becky Milne: Judges, prosecutors, & police officers perceptions of investigative interview practices.
Parallel sessions
Room? Room? Room?
Chair: Sonja Brubacher Chair: Chris Kelly Chair: Carlos Eduardo Peixoto
11:00am Sonja Brubacher, Mohammed Mussa, Becky Earhart, Martine Powell, & Nina Westera: “Don’t Guess”: A comparison of the responsiveness of young versus older adults to ground rules instructions in interviews. Chris Kelly, Greg Yanicki, & Michel St-Yves: A Cop and a Prof walk into a bar… Alessandro Tadei, Pekka Santtila, & Jan Antfolk: Can FICSA improve the accuracy of child sexual abuse investigations?
11:20am Carrie Childs & Dave Walsh: How “anything else?” pre-closing questions may inhibit child witnesses from providing information. Carolina Puyol: Videotaped Interviewing Law of Chile: How a non-profit organization changed the law in Chile.
11:40am Lydia Timms, Sonja Brubacher, Martine Powell, & Madeleine Bearman: A study of children’s perceptions and responses to open and closed questions. Luiziana Schaefer, Carlos Eduardo Peixoto, Laura Teixeira Bolaséll, Teresa Magalhães, Luísa Fernanda Habigzang, & Christian Haag Kristensen: Investigative interviews with alleged victims of child sexual abuse in Brazil.
Parallel sessions
Room? Room? Room?
Chair: Sonja Brubacher Chair: Lorraine Hope Chair: Fiona Gabbert
1:15pm JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen: Vulnerable witnesses: Assessing children’s safety, psychological welfare and needs for the Family Court of New Zealand. Hugues Delmas, Jennifer Ramos, Ahmed El Azhari, Nicolas Rochat, Frédéric Tomas, Samuel Demarchi, Charles Tijus, & Isabel Urdapilleta: Where is Waldo ? Detecting deception through facial expressions and linguistic cues with a cognitive overload. Mick Confrey: Confirmation bias in investigations.
1:35pm Aleksandras Izotovas, Aldert Vrij, Lorraine Hope, Pär-Anders Granhag, Leif Strömwall, & Samantha Mann: Mnemonic techniques and lie detection: Accuracy of deception judgments in repeated accounts.
1:55pm Sonja Brubacher, Katrine Turoy-Smith, Becky Earhart, & Martine Powell: Use of episodic and generic prompts in family law interviews. Louise Jupe, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, & Galit Nahari: Fading lies: Applying the verifiability approach after a period of delay. Mireille Cyr, Jacinthe Dion, Martine Powell, & Annie Gendron: A further look at the long-term adherence to best practice interviewing with children.
2:15pm Hayden Henderson, & Michael Lamb: Judicial and intermediary interventions during children’s cross-examinations. Frédéric Tomas, Hugues Delmas, Samuel Demarchi, Patrick Mollaret, & Farid El Massioui: A baseline approach to automatic written deception detection. David Mount: Investigative interviewing training – Centrality to policing capability.
2:35pm Madeleine Bearman, Lydia Timms, & Martine Powell: Trial of interview techniques for adults with limited expressive language. Nathan Ryan, Mark Kebbell, Becky Milne, & Mark Harrison: CI Homicide
Parallel sessions
Room? Room? Room?
Chair: Gary Dalton Chair: Lesley Laver Chair: David Walsh
3:30pm Kirk Luther, Joseph Eastwood, & Brent Snook: Measuring the effectiveness of the sketch procedure for recalling details of a live interactive event. Lesley Laver: Procedural safeguards for child suspects: What vulnerability looks like in the child suspect. David Walsh, Andy Griffiths, & Ray Bull: Every (bigger) picture tells a story: Moving on from examining EAC to PEACE!
3:50pm Gary Dalton, Andrea Shawyer, Rebecca Milne, Brandon May, Lorraine Hope, & Fiona Gabbert: 999, what’s your emergency? An examination of frontline emergency communication in fire and rescue services control rooms. Meagan McCardle, Kirk Luther, & Brent Snook: A study of interviewer ability: Testing assumptions about assessment of youth understanding. Lauren Wilson, David Walsh, & Ray Bull: Interpreting modern slavery interviews: Broken links in the chain of investigation.
4:10pm Rebecca Milne, & Kevin Smith: Witness interview strategy for critical incidents (WISCI). Lesley Laver, & Ching-Yu Huang: Procedural safeguards for child suspects: Inter-agency dynamics and the fundamental rights of the child.
4:30pm AGM for iIIRG Members ONLY
5:00pm End of Presentations Day Two
7:00pm Conference Dinner at Clube Universitário do Porto – Rua do Campo Alegre, nº 877· 4150-180 Porto

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DAY THREE – Friday 6th July, 2018
8:30am Registration – The Catholic University of Porto
Parallel sessions
Room? Room? Room?
Chair: Peter J. Van Koppen Chair: Nicole Adams-Quackenbush Chair: Michel St-Yves
9:00am Alejandra De La Fuente Vilar, Robert Horselenberg, & Peter J. van Koppen: What if witnesses are uncooperative? – A glimpse on current interviewing practice in the Netherlands. Barry Parsonson: Forensic interviewing for mental health status of persons on remand. Davut Akca, & Joseph Eastwood: Identifying the aptitudes of successful investigative interviewers.
9:20am Uri Blasbalg, Irit Hershkowitz, Michael E. Lamb, & Yael Karni-Visel: Support, reluctance and informativeness in the transitional and substantive phases of investigative interviews with alleged victims of child abuse: comparing the revised and standard NICHD protocols. Egil Hove Olsvik: On operationalization of empathetic techniques.
9:40am Hanna Lahtinen, Julia Korkman, & Aarno Laitila: Children’s disclosures of online sexual harassment. Antonio Serafim: Process of forensic evaluation of children and adolescents victims of sexual abuse. Charlotte Hudson, Liam P. Satchell, & Nicole Adams-Quackenbush: You know it takes two: Understanding variance in interviewer and witness performance.
Parallel sessions
Room? Room? Room?
Chair: Genevieve Waterhouse Chair: Michel St-Yves Chair: Robert Horselenberg
10:30am Kelly Warren: Examining the differential impact of parents versus interviewers on children’s later event recall. Steven Watson, K. Luther, P.J. Taylor, J. Jackson, & L. Alison: Controlling the interview: The influencing of techniques of suspects of control and coercion. Katrina Mayfield: Issues and challenges in interpreter-assisted investigative interviews.
10:50am Pamela Hanway, Lucy Akehurst, Zarah Vernham, & Lorraine Hope: The effects of cognitive load on investigative interviewers’ recall and their perception of mental workload. Christina Winters, Paul J. Taylor, & Kirk Luther: Safe Space: Examining the effect of interview location on self-disclosure. Carolina Navarro: Translating interview protocols for child victims: A case study on the adaptation of the SIM Protocol to Spanish and Chilean context.
11:10am Genevieve Waterhouse, Anne Ridley, Ray Bull, & Rachel Wilcock: A study space analysis for multiple interviewing of child witnesses. Michel St-Yves: No! It is not me!: Study of police investigators ‘strategies to overcome suspects’ resistance following a polygraph test. Katarzyna Holewik: Expectations of the interpreter’s role in interpreter-mediated investigative interviews.
12:00pm LUNCH
Parallel sessions
Room? Room?
Chair: Feni Kontogianni Chair: David La Rooy
1:00pm Alena Nash, Robert A. Nash, & Nathan Ridout: Minimal effects of gaze direction on eyewitnesses’ memory performance in mock interviews. Yael Karni-Visel, irit Hershkowitz, Michael E. Lamb, & Uri Blasbalg: Facilitating emotional expressions by alleged victims of child abuse during investigative interviews using the revised NICHD protocol.
1:20pm Feni Kontogianni, Eva Rubinova, Lorraine Hope, Paul J. Taylor, Aldert Vrij, & Fiona Gabbert: Testing a multi-modal interviewing format for recall of repeated events. Shir Piller, Carmit Katz, Talia Glucklich, & Michal Briteman: Justice for preschoolers – results from the adapted protocol.
1:40pm Annelies Vredeveldt, & Peter J. van Koppen: Collaborative interviewing of eyewitnesses: How it works in practice. Francesco Pompedda, Sara Landström, & Pekka Santtila: Hypothesis-testing approach in alleged CSA interviews.
2:00pm Conference Closure and Invite to the 12th Annual iIIRG Conference 2019 (Newcastle)
Chair: Gavin Oxburgh & Trond Myklebust
2:20pm End of Conference
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This year will involve two keynotes from international experts.

IritProfessor Irit Hershkowitz.  Professor of Social Work, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Irit is one of the founders of the NICHD protocol, and more recently, of the Revised NICHD protocol.  For over two decades, she has conducted field research on best practice concerning child interviews and has specifically focused on the value of protocol-guided interviews. She has been largely involved in domestic and international training for child investigators. Irit has a substantial list of research publications.





Dr David La Rooy.  Royal Holloway, University of London.

DavidDr David La Rooy received his B.A., M.Sc., and Ph.D degrees from the University of Otago in New Zealand. After completing his M.Sc., he worked as a researcher for a Cognitive Psychology Laboratory, ADHD Research Group, and a Children’s Memory Development Group. In 2003, he completed a Ph.D. investigating how children remember their experiences across repeated interviews, and then took up a Post Doctoral Research Fellowship at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Maryland, USA. He has received specialist police training on child forensic interviewing in the USA and UK, as well as training in the assessment of the quality of investigative interviews conducted with children. Dr La Rooy is a Chartered Psychologist and Associate Fellow of his professional governing body, the British Psychology Society. He is an internationally recognized expert in child forensic interviewing, and provides specialist training for forensic interviewers. He was awarded a Scottish Institute for Policing Research Lectureship at the University of Abertay Dundee, Scotland, in 2008, and the Academic Excellence Award by the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group in Switzerland, 2014.

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Day 1 – Wednesday 4th July, 2018

Auditorium: ?
Chair: Fiona Gabbert

Abstract Title:

The benefits of rapport and empathy in information gathering contexts

Authors: Fiona Gabbert, Gordon Wright, Lorraine Hope, Will Webster, & Gary Pankhurst

Although there is no shared definition of the word ‘rapport’ in the research literature, there is general agreement that markers of rapport include behaviours such as relaxed body language, attentiveness, similar communication styles, empathy, shared interests, and mutual respect. These features are observed when people interact with people they trust, and can be applied within an interaction to build trust and rapport. Findings from psychological research suggests that developing rapport facilitates communication and information elicitation. Furthermore, interviewers who make an effort to develop rapport within an information gathering context have been found to elicit significantly more detailed and accurate memory reports from witnesses, suspects, and in intelligence gathering exercises. In the current symposium five speakers will each examine the benefits of rapport and empathy in information gathering contexts. Fiona Gabbert will start the session by presenting a new Systematic Review of relevant rapport literature, focusing on different approaches to manipulating and measuring rapport, and typical findings. This presentation will provide an enhanced understanding of how rapport has been operationalized in the literature and what effects have been observed. Gordon Wright will introduce an evidence-based rapport-building training programme that has been informed by the findings of the Systematic Review, and the findings of a study examining the extent to which rapport skills can be effectively trained. Factors that moderate the effects of training will also be discussed. Lorraine Hope will then build upon the first two presentations by discussing the challenges for building trust and rapport in cross-cultural interviewing contexts. An evidence-based policy resource for UK and international investigative practitioners to support cross-cultural interviewing will be introduced. Our final two speakers will present data illustrating the benefits of rapport and empathy in real-world investigations with victims of rape (Will Webster) and sexual offence suspects (Gary Pankhurst). This symposium seeks to (i) showcase the growing evidence-base of research focusing on the use of rapport in information-gathering contexts; (ii) promote discussions between researchers and practitioners about the challenges of gaining and training rapport-relevant skills and (iii) identify future research directions in this important domain of investigative interviewing.

Chair: Robert Horselenberg

Abstract Title:

Non-Confrontational Interrogation

Authors: David Zulawski

This presentation uses conversational techniques to open a dialogue with a guilty party leading to an admission without forcing the individual to deny involvement. It can also be used to encourage witnesses and reluctant victims to be more forthcoming in their responses.
The presentation will discuss the structure and strategy behind a Non-Confrontational Interrogation and be illustrated with an actual interrogation video. The conversational techniques engage the subject without putting the individual in a position where he must deny his guilt. The individual makes his own decision to confess moving from a point of resistance to one of cooperation.

Abstract Title:

Only the guilty would confess? Memory detection as a forensic tool to evaluate the veracity of a confession.

Authors: Linda Geven, Gershon Ben-Shakhar, Saul Kassin, Merel Kindt, & Bruno Verschuere

A confession is the most incriminatory evidence in criminal proceedings, yet is every confessing suspect actually guilty? Given the alarming number of wrongful convictions resulting from confessions, a tool to objectively verify confessions is needed. Here, we propose a means to differentiate true and false confessions using a new application of the Concealed Information Test (CIT), which assesses recognition of critical knowledge (e.g., crime-scene details).
We adopted the cheating paradigm by Russano and colleagues (2005). Participants completed several tasks, some individually, some in pairs. Unbeknownst to the participants, the team-member was actually a confederate, who tempted the participant to disobey the instructions and assist in the individual assignment, thereby breaking the experimental rules and assuring a financial bonus. Then, the experimenter interrogated the pair, accusing them of cheating and tried to elicit a confession. The comparison of interest is between true confessions (confessing cheaters) and false confessions (confessing non-cheaters). The psychophysiological CIT was used to evaluate the confession. When confessors did not recognize the correct answers only available through actual cheating, it was concluded that the confession may be false. The study design and interim results will be presented at the iIIRG conference.

Abstract Title:

Exploring the Thematic Content of Confession Decisions Made During a Choice-Blindness Paradigm

Authors: Melanie Dawn Douglass & Rashid Minhas

Confession decisions are extremely important to the investigative process but research has focused more on false confessions than factors that may differentiate between true and false confessions. It is known that when participants are told to make true and false confessions the content does not vary and naïve participants cannot differentiate between them. However, it is not known whether there are differences between spontaneously made true and false confessions, where the confessor is not explicitly aware that the aim is to obtain a confession. Members of the general public were recruited from Glasgow Science Centre, with 120 participants taking part. Participants were asked to fill out a norm-violation questionnaire (QHNVB; Sauerland, Schell, Collaris, Reimer, Scheider, & Meckelbach, 2013). A choice-blindness manipulation was then implemented with one item being changed from a response indicating that the behaviour had not previously been engaged in to a response indicating they had previously engaged in the behaviour. Participants were then interviewed about the manipulated item and a non-manipulated item, with the aim of obtaining true and false confessions. Thematic analysis of the resulting confessions was then conducted to reveal themes for true and false confessions. The results and implications will be discussed.

Abstract Title:

Practical Perspectives to Identify the Truth

Authors: David Thompson

The disconnect between practitioners and academia in multiple disciplines is an unfortunate commonality. Often times the practitioner relies heavily on their experience while the academic focuses on the results of their research in a more controlled environment. Over the last couple of years, WZ has collaborated with academics in effort to bridge the gap between these two sectors. Based off of our partnerships we have found that ultimately each of these “sides” have the same goal of obtaining reliable information in the appropriate manner while also reducing the risk of false confessions. With the continued collaboration, WZ has made several changes to its methodology and the way in which we instruct our interview and interrogation programs. These changes include the concept of rationalization, investigative interviewing and the structure of these conversations within the context of the investigation.

Abstract Title:

“Liars are less detailed…so what?” Comparing second recall instructions to better detect deception with a within-subject method.

Authors: Camille Srour, Jacques Py, Chloé Grimaud, & Solène Roche

Objective – While most research on deception provide between-subjects results (e.g., liars give on average less detailed accounts), those might be of limited value for professionals having to evaluate credibility on an individual basis. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal instructions of a within-subject multiple recalls strategy to detect deception. Method – Eighty participants were separated between a Lie group (committing a mock theft) and a Truth group (performing their regular activities). Participants were then interviewed and randomly equally distributed among four interview conditions: two free recalls (condition 1, control), a free recall followed by a recall with an open depth instruction (condition 2), a free recall followed by the verifiable details instruction (condition 3) and two recalls with the verifiable details instruction (condition 4). All recalls were transcribed and coded for total details and total verifiable details. Results – Group (lie / truth) x Recall (first, second) was only significant in Condition 3, with truth tellers providing more verifiable details in the second than in the first recall, whereas liars provided less verifiable details. Conclusions – Professionals can optimally evaluate credibility by using two recalls (free recall followed by verifiable details) and observe the evolution of verifiable details within-subjects.

Chair: Carolina Navarro

Abstract Title:

What makes a good interview aid? Evidence from the research and development of a symbol supported interviewing toolkit

Authors: David Glasgow

Laboratory studies indicate that pictures and symbols used as prompts/adjuncts to interview and recall have a positive effect on memory and other cognitive processes. There debate about what mechanisms might be involved, but there is no doubt that the effects are real and robust.
Unfortunately, the real world and analogue research on interview aids is equivocal. Some interview aids increase the amount of accurate information elicited in some circumstances, but this is often at the cost of an increase in inaccurate information. Further, some aids, may adversely affect the performance of some interviewees, and also interviewers.
There are significant clues in the literature as to why this apparent discrepancy arises, relating to important properties of interview aids. The importance of minimising cognitive & physical demands, ensuring symbolic stability, and also maintaining symbolic intent were confirmed during the development and evaluation of In My Shoes; a computer based symbol supported interviewing toolkit. Examples of ‘good’ interview aids will be demonstrated, and the published literature on the effectiveness of In My Shoes will be summarised.

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Investigative interviewing of children and adolescents in Chile: describing evolving practice

Authors: Maurizio Sovino, Sofía Huerta, & Carolina Navarro

Interviewing of child victims of sexual crimes in Chile is currently in a process of transformation toward new models based on international agreed-upon standards. A new law on video-recorded interviewing of child victims has been recently approved and will come into effect shortly across the country. Improving and standardising interviewing practices is one of the key aspects of this coming reform. However, how Chilean interviewers actually perform when interviewing children has not been documented so far. As a consequence, we do not know how close or far are their practice respect to internationally recommended standards.

Abstract Title:

The impact of Investing in the Good Interviewers policy of practice (IGIpop) on police interviews with children in Cyprus

Authors: Marilena Kyriakidou, Kostas Veis, Mark Blades, Julie Cherryman, & Stephanie Christophorou

Despite improvements in police interviewing, progress through better manuals and training there are still opportunities to make child interviews more effective. Some improvements, like extensive training or ongoing supervision, are costly to implement, and police forces with small budgets may struggle to implement them. A policy is needed that can be benefit all forces irrespective of their resources. We assessed a new approach: Investing in the Good Interviewers Policy of Practice (IGIpop). IGIpop suggests conducting all interviews of child alleged victims of sexual abuse with good interviewers. In 2016 we evaluated the performance of interviewers in the Cyprus police force and noted the good interviewers. The IGIpop was implemented with five interviewers chosen. We assessed how the IGIpop impacted the quality of police interviews by comparing the quality of the questioning used in police interviews prior to and after the IGIpop. Interviews conducted after the IGIpop included significantly more appropriate and less inappropriate approaches. Before the IGIpop, appropriate approaches were 11.8% lower than inappropriate approaches, but after IGIpop the percentage of appropriate approaches was 9.4% more than inappropriate approaches The IGIpop policy therefore achieved an important improvement in the quality of police interviews with children at no extra cost.

Use of the SIM Protocol by Chilean interviewers: an evaluation

Authors: Carolina Navarro, Martine Powell, Tess Knight, & Stefanie Sharman

This mixed-method study assessed the use of the Standard Interview Method (SIM), by Chilean trained interviewers when conducting mock interviews and forensic interviews with children who allege sexual abuse. The focus was on identifying what difficulties— if any—the interviewers experienced in adhering to the protocol and the nature of any variations to the protocol in the field. Transcripts of 88 mock interviews and 100 forensic interviews were obtained at three different time points in the course (pre-training, post training and one-year follow-up). Dependent measures included length of the interview, number and type of questions, and adherence to the protocol components. A content analysis identified the nature of variations in the adherence to the protocol that were encountered. Complementary qualitative analysis was also made to identify similarities and differences in the patterns of interviewing across Australian and Chilean trained interviewers. The outcomes of this study enabled the identification of the strengths and weaknesses shown by Chilean interviewers when adhering to ‘best interviewing practice’. They also provide valuable insight on cultural differences in the way interviewers understand the recommendations contained in interview protocols, which helps trainers to understand the challenges that arise when using those protocols in language another than English.

Abstract Title:

Factors that influence practitioners’ interviewing performance – The Implementation of Videotaped Investigative Interviewing in Chile’

Authors: ?

Throughout 2016 and for part of 2017, the potential barriers and facilitators of effective implementation were analyzed as part of the Project on the Implementation of Videotaped Investigative Interviewing in Chile. This project is nowadays being undertaken jointly by the non-profit organization, Foundation Amparo y Justicia, and the Public Prosecutor’s Office. Subsequently, the Police Force was incorporated to the initiative. The present study included Prosecutors, Social Workers, Psychologists, Police, and Detectives in charge of taking statements from children who are victims of sexual abuse. A mixed methodology was used, combining surveys, semi-structured interviews and group discussion.
The results showed that an effective use of investigative interviewing techniques does not depend on the training process alone, but also on organizational aspects such as (1) structure (infrastructure, procedures and organizational characteristics); and (2) communication (degree of information and general understanding of the technique altogether with its implications for all levels of the institution, including prejudices or myth beliefs about interviewing techniques).
In summary, institutional barriers identified were interfering with the transfer and adoption of good practices previously acquired by practitioners.

Chair: Fiona Gabbert

Abstract Title:

Legal challenges to children’s evidence in Scotland: An evaluation of case studies

Author: Olivia Gomes Bell

In 2016 over 2,700 children were identified as needing protection from abuse in Scotland (NSPCC, 2016). Going to court can cause children further trauma, which may prevent them from giving their full evidence. Recent legislative changes in Scotland have made it easier for children to provide evidence, including the use of pre-recorded interviews in court replacing physical presence. It is crucial that children’s reports are clear, consistent, detailed and accurate, to enable this evidence to be regarded as reliable in Court. However, continued poor quality of joint investigative interviews in Scotland is evident in analysis of cases throughout Scotland. Even if an interview follows the Scottish guidelines reasonably, presence of suggestive prompts can contaminate crucial parts of the child’s account, leaving the evidence vulnerable to legal challenge. Through an evaluation of cases, particular issues with interviewing children will be discussed in context of the legal outcomes. It is hoped that increasing awareness of the legal impact of poor interviewing may promote more consistent joint investigative interviewing training provision throughout Scotland with robust quality assurance.

Chair: Robert Horselenberg

Abstract Title:

Detecting Bias in Police Suspect Interviews: A linguistic approach

Author: Nicole Adams-Quackenbush, Sanne Wind, Robert Horselenberg, & Peter van Koppen

Research has demonstrated that interviewer beliefs about a suspect’s guilt can initiate a cycle of confirmation bias. This occurs when the behaviour and responses of the suspect are interpreted by the interviewer as endorsing their beliefs. Research has also shown that accusatory questions during an investigative interview are indicative of biased beliefs about a suspect’s guilt. This study aims to investigate how confirmation bias presents in linguistic behaviour during the investigative interview. We use the Linguistic Category Model (Semin & Feidler, 1991) and the Question-Answer Paradigm (Semin et al., 1995) to analyse questions asked over 17 interviews with a murder suspect. If confirmation bias is present, we expect it will emerge through question type (i.e., accusatory questions), and verb abstraction (i.e., high levels of abstraction). Moreover, we expect the verb choices of the questions will prompt the suspect to focus on themselves in their responses. We will discuss our findings, decisions made by the court in this case, and implications for interviewer training and development.

Abstract Title:

Anatomy of the visual recording from the multiple disciplinary approaches.

Authors: Naoko Yamada-Furuta, Makoto Ibusuki, Yuko Yamasaki, & Ryota Kitamura

Authors conducted an experiment to acertain the effect on fact-finding when the record of suspect interview is provided in different ways. The experiment has conducted for 176 participants (average 20.1 years, SD = 1.5) and 8 patterns of stimuli were used. Participants were randomly divided into eight conditions.
Eight stimuli of interview records are below; the combination of two types of interview techniques (Reid technique vs. PEACE Model) and four types of presentation medium (DVD of focus on the defendant, DVD of focus on the defendant and the investigator equally, voice, and transcripts). Additional to the above, authors used questionnaires and summary of the case for the experiment.
Then authors analyzed the result from the view points of law and psychology, especially of interview technique and camera perspective bias. For judgment of voluntariness and credibility of the accused’s statements, and appropriateness of the interview, we conducted an analysis of variance of the two factors, the interview technique and the medium/method for presenting interview record. Results showed that in all judgments, the main effect of the interview technique was significant (PEACE Model was significantly higher than Reid technique). Additionally, regarding the judgment of credibility and appropriateness, interaction was a significant trend.

Chair: Marilena Kyriakidou

Abstract Title:

Professional Enquiry one year on – getting away from linear models of teaching interview

Author: Gregory Phillips, Clair Nunn-Furzey, & Steven Longford

Any practitioner in the modern day understands the wealth of evidence from study after study that Rapport is vital to interview success. But the truth is most participants who undertake training programs come out with a misunderstanding of precisely what Rapport is, and studies measuring use of Rapport devices show that practitioners – despite knowing it is essential – just don’t do it. so, what stops them? One layer is an understanding of what Ideas, such as Rapport really represent. But there is a deeper issue at the heart of the problem. The WAY interview is taught. Most models of interview that are taught focus on a linear model of teaching participants. That means that a teacher might start with understanding rapport. Prepping for interview. building relationship. Achieving an account. Questioning processes. Conclusion of interview. So the student ends up understanding Interview as a task to carry out step by step. Models like PEACE, PROSPECT, KREATIV arise from this pedagogy – a process-oriented model. New Intelligence has, for the past 2 years, examined and explored the underlying cognitive skills and abilities necessary to be able to execute on a difficult interview. Whilst others have focussed on the psychological aspect of the interviewer (for example Which OCEANS personality profile might make a better interviewer), which traits interviewers should possess, New Intelligence has maintained a consistent focus on the Cognitive Process undertaken by interviewers. What has arisen in the last 2 years, and especially from talking with participants at last years IIIRG is a concrete set of cognitive capabilities that must be developed in interviewers in order that they can then execute adequately on the pedagogical models offered, such as PEACE and PROSPECT. Professional Inquiry is the name given to this range of skills and attitudes that practitioners must be able to execute before worrying about process and procedure. This is not intended to replace linear models, but to underpin linear models by shifting and enhancing cognitive capabilities of interviewers. For example, what good is it to teach a participant to research their file properly, putting in hours of work, if they do not make the effort to properly define their research question? What is the good in teaching a participant that Rapport is vital, if you do not teach them the fundamental human cognitive skill of Perspective Shifting. Without Perspective-shifting, Rapport cannot happen. The workshop would be designed to show participants the difference between trying to “get Rapport” and actually shifting perspective to allow Rapport to happen. And other pragmatic tools. In the end “rapport” is simply a label given to a state of relationship where both parties are aligned in understanding. Rapport itself is only an idea and usually is only applied as positive or negative good or bad rapport, and only in hindsight once the interview has concluded. Others (for example, Abbe and Brandon) have looked at ways to tell when Rapport is successfully being “built”. But you cannot build it. You have to allow it to happen. So, you actually have to WANT to allow it to happen, then you have to WANT to shift your perspective to get alignment with the subject. For enforcement officers this is a continuous challenge, because it diminishes their reason for being in the room (the hero narrative). In short, Professional Inquiry underpins linear models, and is a new way of thinking about what – and how – should be taught in interview to achieve Elite best Practice.

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Day 2 – Thursday 5th July, 2018

Auditorium: ?
Chair: Trond Myklebust

Abstract Title:

KEYNOTE: Repeated interviews with child witnesses in legal contexts

Authors: David La Rooy

Within the legal system, children are frequently interviewed about their experiences more than once, with different information elicited in different interviews. The presumed positive and negative effects of multiple interviewing have generated debate and controversy within the legal system and among researchers. Some commentators emphasise that repeated interviews foster inaccurate recall and are inherently suggestive, whereas others emphasise the benefits of allowing witnesses more than one opportunity to recall information. In this presentation key literature on repeated interviewing will be presented before examining a series of specific cases highlighting what happens when children are repeatedly interviewed in legal contexts. Implications for current interviewing guidelines and expert-witness testimony will be discussed.

Chair: Fiona Gabbert

Abstract Title:

The utility of a self-generated cue mnemonic instruction to facilitate enhanced recall

Author: Gary Dalton, Lorraine Hope, & Rebecca Milne

Person descriptions provided by witnesses form an important source of information for police investigations. Unfortunately, these descriptions tend to be non-distinct. Interview techniques using cognitive mnemonics that provide retrieval support have been shown to be useful for increasing the completeness of information. The present study aimed to examine the effects of retrieval support on attempts to elicit detailed person descriptions. More specifically, we examined whether providing a self-generated cue mnemonic instruction elicited a more detailed person description than a free recall or a standard descriptive form (currently used by the police).

One hundred and two participants viewed a simulated crime involving a suspect committing a theft and after a short delay provided a description of the suspect with an enhanced description form, a free recall or a police description form. Overall accuracy was measured, and the Koriat and Goldsmith (1996) Metacognitive Model of Memory Regulation was used to examine the level of detail witnesses provided.

Results and discussion
Data has been collected and full results will be presented. In addition, the impact for practice, policy and future research will be discussed.

Abstract Title:

Examining the efficacy of a Self Report Form in Missing Persons Investigations.

Authors: Alessandra Caso, Fiona Gabbert, Donata Tamonyte, Penny Woolnough, & Joe Apps

In a missing person investigation people close to the missing person have a pivotal role as informers, however after the first interview with the police they have little chance to help the investigation any further. We propose a self-administered retrieval aid that can be left with the informers, and used to recall extra information, and continue to help the investigation. In this study participants were tested in pairs and upon arrival they were immediately separated. They were instructed to imagine that the person they came with has gone missing and asked to complete either the Missing Person Self Report Form or a Control Form. Participants completing a Missing Person Self Report Form reported significantly more correct information regarding both physical description, clothing and personal effects, compared with those in the Control condition. They also provided more fine-grain details and more unique descriptions. Potential applications of the tool are discussed.

Chair: Marte Lefsaker Sakrisvold

Abstract Title:

Examining the Impact of Corroborator Age on Alibi Assessment

Author: Mark Snow & Joseph Eastwood

The purpose of the current research was to assess the impact of the age of an alibi corroborator on peoples’ perceptions of an alibi provider. Across two studies, participants were asked to assume the role of a police detective and to assess the alibi of an armed robbery suspect. The alibi contained a single individual that was willing to verify the suspect’s account (i.e., an alibi corroborator). In Study 1, we examined the impact of the alibi corroborator’s age (i.e., 8-year-old vs. 25-year-old) and relationship with the suspect (i.e., stranger vs. neighbour vs. son) on ratings of corroborator credibility and suspect guilt. In Study 2, we examined the impact of the alibi corroborator’s age (i.e., 4-year-old vs. 8-year-old vs. 25-year-old) and the level of cognition needed to remember the alibi event (i.e., delayed vs. recent event) on the same dependent measures. Results indicated that an 8-year-old corroborator was viewed more favourably than a 4- or 25-year-old corroborator. Participants also demonstrated increased skepticism when the corroborator was interviewed after a longer delay as well as when the corroborator was related to the suspect.

Abstract Title:

Examining the use of weak vs. memory-enhancing interview techniques with honest and deceptive alibi witnesses.

Authors: Marthe Lefsaker Sakrisvold, Erik Mac-Giolla, Timothy Luke, & Pär-Anders Granhag

In investigative interviewing, deception detection is crucial. Few studies have examined this in the context of honest and deceptive alibis. We examined the effects of using both a weaker interview and a memory-enhancing interview (inspired by the cognitive interview) on the level of detail and consistency of participants’ statements. 50 pairs of truth-telling participants completed a series of innocuous tasks. 51 lying pairs completed slightly different tasks, including a transgressive act. Participants were then interviewed about their whereabouts twice, with both the weaker interview and the memory-enhancing interview (in which the order was systematically manipulated). Based on previous research on memory, consistency, and alibis, we hypothesized that a memory enhancing interview (vs. a weaker interview) would induce truth-tellers (vs. liars) to provide more details, resulting in a lower within-group consistency. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the order of the interview techniques would magnify the difference in the amount of details provided by truth-tellers and liars. Specifically, we expected that truth-tellers who were first interviewed with the weak interview, followed by the memory-enhancing interview, would produce the largest amount of added details compared to the other groups. The results will be presented and discussed.

Chair: Anu Aromäki-Stratos

Abstract Title:

Written reports of child abuse investigations viewed by prosecutors and judges

Author: Anu Aromäki-Stratos

In Finland specialized hospital units provide expert assistance for the police in child abuse allegations, particularly when young children are involved. When asked to assist, a psychologist from the unit will interview a child. All interviews are electronically recorded and transcribed word for word. In addition background information from the family is provided from the social and welfare systems. The collected information is analyzed, and the different hypotheses that have been formulated are weighed against this information. The units write expert statements/reports of all the information they have gathered for the judicial process. We wanted to explore how prosecutors and judges utilize these expert statements in their decision making. A questionnaire was sent out to prosecutors and judges all around Finland. In this study we present our findings.

Abstract Title:

Judges, Prosecutors, & Police Officers Perceptions of Investigative Interview Practices.

Authors: Paulo Marques & Becky Milne

There have been many studies over the past decades that have critically evaluated police interviewing skills. These studies have considered the impact of the information gathering approach to investigative interviewing, the various skills that effective interviewers display and the structure of good quality interviews with witnesses. This research explores the perceptions of police officers with criminal investigation roles (n = 358, from four different police constabularies), judges (n = 64) and prosecutors (n = 84). Both quantitative and qualitative data are analyzed to determine how police officers perform in the techniques used when collecting witnesses statements. The result clearly indicates that officers report they use some techniques more often than others. On the other hand the research revealed that attending a criminal investigation course or having criminal investigation functions is important when deciding on a particular component. Apparently professionals tend to opt for more intuitive techniques and move away from advanced techniques and mnemonics that help in an extensive retrieval. This may be indicative of insufficient training in techniques that promote more efficient recovery. Despite the passage of time and cultural differences, overall, the results of the current study establish a broadly similar pattern to those of Kebbell, Milne, & Wagstaff (1999) and Dando, Wilcock, & Milne (2008).

Chair: Sonja Brubacher

Abstract Title:

“Don’t Guess”: A Comparison of the Responsiveness of Young versus Older Adults to Ground Rules Instructions in Interviews

Author: Sonja Brubacher, Mohammed Mussa, Becky Earhart, Martine Powell, & Nina Westera

While developmental differences in children’s abilities to understand and apply ground rules (e.g., instructions to avoid guessing, ask for clarification, etc.) have been explored, the utility of ground rules with adults remains unexamined. The current study tested young (18 to 40) versus older (60+) adults’ responsiveness to three ground rules. Participants (N = 120) viewed a film of a mock crime, completed a distracter task, and were questioned about the film. Two groups of participants received ground rules: either as statements alone or statements with practice examples. A control group received no ground rules. Embedded into the interview were six challenge questions for which the correct answer was to employ a ground rule. After debriefing, participants were asked about their perceptions of the utility of the ground rules. Preliminary findings suggest that ground rules conditions used rules significantly more often in response to challenge questions than the control condition, and young adults were more likely than older adults to perceive the ground rules as valuable. Qualitative responses suggest that the benefit of ground rules for adults is likely to be socially driven.

Abstract Title:

How “anything else?” pre-closing questions may inhibit child witnesses from providing information

Authors: Carrie Childs & Dave Walsh

This paper analyses the ‘closure phase’ of investigative interviews with children reporting their being victim of alleged sexual offenses. Our focus is on how interviewers ask witness if they would like to add to what has been said or whether they have any questions, as recommended by best practice guidelines (for example, the Achieving Best Evidence guide). The data set comprises twenty-seven videotaped interviews conducted by one UK Constabulary. Using Conversation Analysis, we show how “anything else?” questions are not treated, by officers or by interviewees, as a request for information or a new topic. Rather, these are a routine step in the pre-closing and closing of the interview. We show how the design of these questions discourages interviewees from providing additional information. We also show how asking this question outside of the closure phase with a different question format creates room for interviewees to come forward with a new topic. The paper concludes that the advice proposed in best practice guidelines- that interviewers should request for the initiation of a new topic using “anything else?” questions, while at the same time closing the interview- is somewhat paradoxical.

Abstract Title:

A study of children’s perceptions and responses to open and closed questions

Authors: Lydia Timms, Sonja Brubacher, Martine Powell, & Madeleine Bearman

Despite global recognition that an open interview style can maximise the quality of a child’s account, there has been no investigation into children’s perceptions (or preferences) regarding the different types of questions that they may encounter in an interview. While the main aim of an investigative interview is to elicit an account of the child’s experiences, it is also important that the interview process be as non-threatening as possible.
The study aimed to analyse the perceptions that children have towards two different interview styles. School-aged (year 2 to 6 in Australian schools) children (n=83) viewed a 2-minute film and then progressed through three 7 minute interviews. In the first two interviews, the child was asked either closed or open questions about the video (counterbalanced for order and interviewer). The child was then asked for their preference between the two interviews.
Children perceived more opportunity to provide detailed and accurate responses to the open style interview. Their preference for increased interviewer attention reflects their desire to be listened to by the criminal justice system. The findings add further support for the importance of adhering to best practice guidelines for investigative interviewing, which dictate an open narrative style of questioning.

Chair: Chris Kelly

Abstract Title:

A Cop and a Prof Walk into a Bar…

Author: Christopher Kelly, Greg Yanicki, & Michel St-Yves

For this short symposium, we are proposing an alternative format in the spirit of the iIIRG’s mission to promote collaboration between practitioners and researchers. Whereas short symposia traditionally consist of 3-4 related but independent research presentations, plus a discussant, we are proposing that a police practitioner and an academic researcher present complementary views on a common topic. The explicit purpose of this approach is to highlight both convergent and divergent views between the two perspectives to generate a discussion about collaboration and future research.
At its heart, the proposed symposium is a case study of an investigative interview of a homicide suspect in Canada. Rather than it being described only from the perspective of a practitioner involved in the case, however, an academic researcher will give an independent account of how this interview could be evaluated based on current methods of content analysis. Each presentation is expected to last approximately 15-17 minutes. Further, a forensic psychologist will serve as a discussant on the panel to offer insight on the two perspectives, as such an individual has a mix of both interviewing and research expertise. The discussant will reflect on the presentations for 10 minutes, leaving ample time for audience questions and feedback.
Although the interview will be selected by the practitioner and shared with the researcher, the two presentations will not be collaboratively planned. The purpose of this is to explore how the two parties view and explain an investigative interview without unduly biasing each other, and the discussant will also not have prior consultation with the presenters. This experimental format has the potential to generate useful dialogue across the iIIRG conference delegates in order to deepen the relationships between the various constituencies of the organization.

Chair: Carlos Eduardo Peixoto

Abstract Title:

Can FICSA improve the accuracy of child sexual abuse investigations?

Author: Alessandro Tadei, Pekka Santtila, & Jan Antfolk

The Finnish Investigative Instrument of Child Sexual Abuse (FICSA) is a computerized tool used to separate false reports of child sexual abuse (CSA) from real ones. With only 28 questions asked to female alleged victims, and 17 to males, FICSA reaches an excellent diagnostic utility (AUC = .88 for girls and AUC = .97 for boys). Here, we tested if professionals from CSA investigative units could reach more accurate conclusions when evaluating CSA summaries using FICSA, compared to professionals with access only to scientific data and summaries, or just summaries. Preliminary results show that FICSA improves decision making when the alleged victim is a boy, while it seems that professionals tend not to trust our tool response when the alleged victim is a girl. In addition, just having access to scientific data brings no advantage in terms of evaluation accuracy. The reasons behind these results will be explored, and we will also discuss how FICSA can be used to improve information-gathering in interviews with the alleged victim.

Abstract Title:

Chilean Videotaped Interviewing Law: How a non-profit organization changed the criminal procedure in Chile

Authors: Carolina Puyol, Diego Izquierdo, Catalina Fernández, Asunción Luksic, Francisco García, Rocío Acosta, Ignacia Humenyi, & Pedro Toledo

A decade ago, the non-profit organization Foundation Amparo y Justicia added to its mission the task of helping to reduce the secondary victimization in the criminal justice system of children and adolescents who are victims of sexual abuse. Reducing the number of repeated interviews with victims and introducing the Videotaped recording of investigative interviews was identified as central to this goal. To that end, several innovative actions and strategies were made to raise public and professional awareness, and inform and educate members of Parliament, about the need for radical change. Working with stakeholders over a 10-year-period the Fundación adopted an evidenced-based approach to motivate change. It also coordinated several government institutions and it was directly involved in informing the political debate about proposed changes in the law that would be required. This case study describes the process of a successful implementation of political change for the benefit of children, identifying significant milestones and challenges faced, that may help other countries facing similar challenges.

Abstract Title:

Investigative interviews with alleged victims of child sexual abuse in Brazil

Authors: Luiziana Schaefer, Carlos Eduardo Peixoto, Laura Teixeira Bolaséll, Teresa Magalhães, Luísa Fernanda Habigzang, & Christian Haag Kristensen

Child sexual abuse is extremely difficult to investigate precisely because the only evidence often consists of the victims’ and suspect’s account of the alleged events. Researchers have shown that the use of NICHD Protocol improves the quality of information obtained from alleged victims by investigators. The goal of the present study was to describe the type of interventions used by forensics psychologists and psychiatrics, before they received specific training in the NICHD Protocol. The interventions were classified according to the NICHD codebook. We analyzed 65 interviews and 64.6% were performed by psychologists. The mean age of the interviewed children was 10.49 year (SD=2.22) and 86.2% were female (n=56). There were 4465 pairs of interventions and among the substantive utterances, 44.1% corresponded to Option-Posing, 38.5% were Directive Question, 15.1% were Invitation, 5% were Summary and 1.8% corresponded to Suggestive Question. Most of the interventions (82.6%) corresponded to Directive and Option-Posing types, which are closed interventions. The ideal would be an increase in the interventions of the type Invitation, because the children are thereby encouraged to provide more information about experienced events, helping them to elicit information that is more likely to be accurate and less likely to be challenged in court.

Chair: Sonja Brubacher

Abstract Title:

Vulnerable witnesses: Assessing children’s safety, psychological welfare and needs for the Family Court of New Zealand.

Author: JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen

This paper outlines the Court-appointed psychologist’s brief as set by the Family Court (NZ) in two distinct cases – one case of suspected ‘parental alienation’ and one case of suspected ‘non-accidental’ head injury of an infant. It then follows the case structure and methodology used in each case, including a comparison of child and adult specialist interviews with behavioural observations that together formed the basis of evidence and recommendations to the Court. The implications for the Criminal Court investigations concurrent with the Family Court investigations relating to the ‘non-accidental’ head injury case also are discussed. This paper also focuses on the realities and problems of gathering evidence regarding children and families under stress and ways that behavioural-based theory and applied behaviour analysis can help the interviewer-assessor.

Abstract Title:

Use of Episodic and Generic Prompts in Family Law Interviews

Authors: Sonja Brubacher, Katrine Turoy-Smith, Becky Earhart, & Martine Powell

Child interviews form a central part of family law evaluations, but the body of literature to guide the format of these interviews is lacking. In the current study, 6- to 10-year-old children (n = 47) were interviewed about typical family law topics, including routines, home environment, and family relationships. Children were asked both Episodic (e.g., “What happened when Mum got home from work today?”) and Generic (e.g., “What usually happens when Mum gets home from work?”) prompts. Half the children were asked Episodic prompts first and half were asked Generic prompts first, and children’s responses in the two phases of the interview were compared within-subjects. Preliminary analyses demonstrate that: recall order had no effect on children’s reports; responses to episodic and generic prompts were equally likely to be on-topic; children provided a greater number of details and fewer refusals (e.g., “Pass” or “Don’t know”) to generic than episodic prompts; but their responses to episodic prompts were more informative than responses to generic prompts. Overall, findings suggest that there may be benefits to asking children questions about “what happened” as well as “what happens” to get a broader picture of their experiences in family law investigations.

Abstract Title:

Judicial and Intermediary Interventions during Children’s Cross-Examinations

Authors: Hayden Henderson & Michael Lamb

From 2012-2016, special measures known as ‘Section 28’ of the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act were piloted in England. These reforms included a mandatory Ground Rules Hearing, where judges, lawyers, and if applicable, intermediaries (i.e., court-appointed specialists who facilitate communication between lawyers and children) discussed how to appropriately question the child, followed by a pre-recorded cross-examination. Research found that Section 28 not only reduced the delay between forensic interview and cross-examination, but also, significantly reduced the number of suggestive questions put to child witnesses. However, risky questioning was still present in cases with and without the special measures.
As such, this study determined whether judges and intermediaries in the pilot study sufficiently intervened during risky questioning. Judges’ utterances constituted 13.7% of total utterances, while intermediaries were only present in 13 of the 87 cases and constituted 1.5% of total utterances. Judges were more likely to intervene in the Non-Section 28 condition (17% of utterances compared to 10%), while in both conditions, nearly 50% of intermediary utterances were interventions. Further analyses explored the causes for these interventions (e.g., risky questions, technological difficulties, problems understanding the child, etc.) and revealed whether judges and intermediaries appropriately accommodated child witnesses.

Abstract Title:

Trial of interview techniques for adults with limited expressive language

Authors: Madeleine Bearman, Lydia Timms, & Martine Powell

The current research addresses how investigate interview techniques can be improved to enhance the quality of interviews with adults with limited expressive language. Although research suggests the use of open-ended questions, preparing for the interview, and allowing for frequent breaks, this is not sufficient to elicit details about offences when the person has limited expressive language (e.g. 2-5 word sentences). This paper trials three interview protocols with 80 adults with limited expressive language. Participants were involved in three events that consisted of a show and tell, a relaxation exercise and a snack. All three events followed the same structure though different items, colours, and snacks were used. Participant’s expressive language and cognitive function were also assessed to compare outcomes. Following the live events, participants were interviewed using one of three interview protocols to test the accuracy of their recall. In the first interview condition, participants were interviewed using an open-ended interview structure. In the second condition, participants were interviewed using an open-ended interview structure combined with visual aids. In the third condition, participants were interviewed using a descriptive protocol. Results showed that interview condition one was the most effective in gathering information about the events without compromising accuracy.

Chair: Lorraine Hope

Abstract Title:

Where is Waldo? Detecting deception through facial expressions and linguistic cues with a cognitive overload.

Author: Hugues Delmas, Jennifer Ramos, Ahmed El Azhari, Nicolas Rochat, Frédéric Tomas, Samuel Demarchi, Charles Tijus, & Isabel Urdapilleta

Instructing individuals to report what happened in a reverse order helps to distinguish liars from truth-tellers when using speech indicators such as hesitations. However, cues such as basic emotional facial expressions (e.g. fear), facial movements intensity (e.g. frown) or linguistic features (e.g. pronoun i) were not assessed. Our study involved 172 participants that were asked to search in a public space someone with a red scarf, named Waldo, in order to get a code. Participants were randomly assigned, either to the truth-tellers group that actually found Waldo, or to the liars group that didn’t meet him. Liars were intercepted by an experimental accomplice who explained to them that Waldo will not come but that they must claim to have met him. Then participants told their story either chronologically, or in reverse order, while facing a camera. Sixteen facial cues and seven emotional facial expressions were coded with FaceReader (Noldus software). Linguistic features were analysed with the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count. Stepwise discriminant analyses were carried out. Correct classification rates were obtained for facial movements intensity (56%), basic emotional facial expression (61%) and linguistic cues (over 90%). Reverse order instruction increased discrimination. Linguistic cues were the most relevant.

Abstract Title:

Mnemonic Techniques and Lie Detection: Accuracy of Deception Judgments in Repeated Accounts

Authors: Aleksandras Izotovas, Aldert Vrij, Lorraine Hope, Pär-Anders Granhag, Leif Strömwall, & Samantha Mann

In this study we examined whether the use of memory-enhancing techniques (mnemonics) in interviews can be helpful to distinguish truth tellers from liars. In the previous study (Izotovas et al., 2017), it was found that when mnemonic techniques were used in the interview immediately after the event, truth-tellers reported more details than liars in those immediate interviews and again after a delay. Moreover, truth-tellers, but not liars, showed patterns of reporting indicative of genuine memory decay.
In the current experiment, participants (n = 92) were asked to read the repeated statements reported by participants in the Izotovas et al.’s (2017) study and decide whether a statement they read was truthful or deceptive. One group of participants (informed condition) received information about the findings of the previous study before reading the statement. The other group received no information before reading the statement (uninformed condition). It was found that truthful statements were judged more accurately in the informed condition (65.2%) than in the uninformed condition (47.8%). However, in both conditions deceptive statements were detected at chance level (52.2%). Theoretical and practical implications of the findings will be discussed during the conference presentation.

Abstract Title:

Fading Lies: Applying the Verifiability Approach after a Period of Delay

Authors: Louise Jupe, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, & Galit Nahari

We tested the utility of applying the Verifiability Approach (VA) to witness statements after a period of delay. The delay factor is important to consider because interviewees are often not interviewed directly after witnessing an event. A total of 68 liars partook in a mock crime and then lied about it during an interview, seven days later. Truth tellers (n = 78) partook in activities of their own choosing and told the truth about it during their interview, seven days later. All participants were split into three groups, which provided three different verbal instructions relating to the interviewer’s aim to assess the statements for the inclusion of verifiable information; the Information Protocol (IP); no-IP (n = 43), the standard IP (n = 46) and an enhanced IP (n = 53). In the current study, in addition to the standard VA approach of analysing verifiable details, we further examined verifiable witness information and verifiable digital information and made a distinction between verifiable details and verifiable sources. We found that truth tellers reported more verifiable digital details and sources than liars, particularly in the enhanced-IP condition. The reason for this effect was that the IP encouraged truth tellers to report verifiable information.

Abstract Title:

A baseline approach to automatic written deception detection

Authors: Frédéric Tomas, Hugues Delmas, Samuel Demarchi, Patrick Mollaret, & Farid El Massioui

Automated written deception detection is a promising area of research, as it combines fast processing and accurate results. However, within-subject baseline experimental designs are scarce in this field of research. We investigated within-subject automated written deception detection. Students (N = 35) were asked to describe their previous weekend as precisely as possible with cognitive interview instructions. After handing back their free narrative, participants were then asked to write a completely factitious but plausible week-end, so that if one compared the authentic and the fake narratives, they would not be distinguishable. All texts were gathered, transcribed, and orthography was corrected. The data were analyzed with the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count (LIWC) with all variables, since content and form were asked to be indiscernible. A stepwise discriminant analysis was conducted to determine accuracy in classifying deceitful and authentic narratives. The discriminant analysis was significant (p < .001), leading to correct classification rates at 88.6% for authentic texts, and 82.9% for deceitful texts. Eight variables contributed to the analysis: word count, swear words, cause, inclusive, hearing, food, home, parenthesis. Results are discussed in terms of context influence on deception detection and the need for baseline determination in deception detection.

Chair: Fiona Gabbert

Abstract Title:

Confirmation bias in investigations.

Author: Mick Confrey

The investigator must fight against a psychological phenomenon, in which desire can directly influence beliefs, namely confirmation bias, by first recognising its existence. The investigator must actively and constantly challenge their own, and fellow investigators hypothesis. This challenge starts from the point a crime is reported until the completion of the investigation process, including the duration of any judicial process that follows. Confirmation bias, or our ability to select and favour the information that confirms our existing beliefs, whilst usually unintentional, is the downfall of a fair investigation. The problem is that it is not easy to avoid, and the more routine an investigation becomes the easier it is to fall into confirmation bias. As a former investigator into the most serious of crimes, I have noted a few potential causes of confirmation bias that the investigator must remain aware of. Language, Routine, Cutting corners, Investigative skills, Decision making. Disclosure. All these factors and more can only be combated by the investigator keeping an investigative mind-set and an open mind – though not too open as to risk their brain falling out!

Abstract Title:

A further look at the long-term adherence to best practice interviewing with children

Authors: Mireille Cyr, Jacinthe Dion, Martine Powell, & Annie Gendron

This study investigates the long-term adherence to best practice interviewing and reported data provided on 136 investigative interviews done by 45 police officers with children aged under 14 years old with sexual or physical abuse allegations. These investigators have been trained to use the NICHD protocol in the previous 3.4 years (SD = 1.7). Results revealed that the rules of communication are done in more than 90% of the interviews. The invitation to practice memory with a pleasant recent event is done in 59.2% of interviews and 90.5% of them included specific or closed questions instead of the invitation questions recommended. In only 36.9% of the interviews, a first complete narrative was obtained before asking other questions. Although invitations were not the majority of utterances before the break, cued invitations (56%) are more often used than time-segmentation invitations (22.7%). However, the questions were short with 71.4% of the interviews and appropriate for children age (95.2%). Police officers adopt an attitude that respect the pace (92.9%) of the child, but the use of the child’s name and/or other facilitators are rare (16.7%). These results underline that post-training support is needed to maintain the skills and long-term adherence to best practice interviewing
This study reported empirical data on interviewer competencies to follow research based forensic interviewing guidelines and open the discussion on the transfer of skills and post-training supervision that needed to be implemented for interviewing children.
The results presented at this conference are the first phase of an ongoing research on effectiveness of post-training support in child sexual abuse investigative interviews. They included new dimensions in the analyzed of the interview. We will be able to add some regression analysis to our presentation to better qualified was factors are related to non-adherence to forensic interviewing guidelines. Suggestion for post-training support will also be provided.

Abstract Title:

Investigative Interviewing Training – Centrality to Policing Capability

Authors: David Mount

This oral presentation provides a synopsis of the key findings from my PhD research: Skill Acquisition, Transfer and Application: A Study of Investigative Interviewing Training in the Queensland Police Service. The design, development and delivery of training that appropriately prepares officers to conduct effective investigative interviews in a range of operational circumstances is a complex undertaking. Training managers must balance finite resources, competing priorities, limited timeframes and a traditional / militaristic mindset to training design in the pursuit of desired capability outcomes. Once acquired in the training environment, the investigative interviewing skills must transfer to the police workplace and be applied in an operational context. A range of factors will directly and indirectly influence the transfer and application of these skills and influence the rate of decay that they experience. My research findings suggest that the use of an andragogical approach to learning coupled with increased opportunities to practice interviews in a residential training setting are likely to improve training outcomes. Equally, workplace coaching and regular, operational utilisation of core interviewing skills are likely to ameliorate the negative effects of transfer and application. These findings have broad applicability to training individuals in both soft and hard interviewing skills when the purpose is the elicitation of complete, accurate and timely information in a legally compliant manner.

Abstract Title:

The On-site Cognitive Interview in Missing Body homicides

Authors: Nathan Ryan, Mark Kebbell, Becky Milne, & Mark Harrison

In homicide cases where the victim’s remains are missing, often it is the perpetrator that holds the only information that can lead to their retrieval. In these cases, the investigative interview is essential for acquiring this information. Recent research has found that while investigators have an evidence base to support practices in an interview room setting, there is no such evidence to inform interviews which are conducted when taking the perpetrator to the deposition site. The current study required 40 undergraduate students to hide an object in a tract of bushland and return 30 days later to retrieve it after being randomly assigned to either an on-site free recall or abbreviated Cognitive Interview (CI) retrieval condition. Results found that although the participants were no more accurate when locating the object in the CI condition, they were likely to give more coarse and fine grain detail about landmarks and give more detail about what they were thinking when trying to hide the object. Although, the CI did not improve accuracy, the increased level of detail provided by participants may assist in narrowing down the search area for investigators. The results of this study demonstrate that the CI can be used as part of an on-site interview strategy and starts to provide an evidence base for investigators in these types of cases.

Chair: Gary Dalton

Abstract Title:

Measuring the effectiveness of the sketch procedure for recalling details of a live interactive event.

Authors: Kirk Luther, Joseph Eastwood, & Brent Snook

Introduction. One Cognitive Interview technique that has yet to undergo extensive empirical testing is the sketch procedure. The sketch procedure involves the interviewee drawing out the spatial and temporal elements of a witnessed event and then referencing the sketch when subsequently providing a more detailed verbal account. The effectiveness the Sketch procedure for recalling a live interactive event was compared to Mental Reinstatement of Context (MRC) and Control procedures. Method. Participants (N = 88) engaged in a live interaction with a confederate that included physical actions and verbal exchanges. Participants were unaware they would be questioned about the interaction. They were later asked to recall their experience via one of three procedures: Sketch, MRC, or Control. Results. Participants who were administered the sketch procedure recalled significantly more correct details than those administered a MRC or Control procedure (ds = 0.55 and 1.31, respectively). There was no significant effect of procedure type on the number of incorrect details recalled. Discussion. The findings from this study demonstrate the effectiveness of the sketch procedure for providing a detailed and accurate account of an ecologically-valid target event.

Abstract Title:

999, what’s your emergency? An Examination of Frontline Emergency Communication in Fire and Rescue Services Control Rooms

Authors: Gary Dalton, Andrea Shawyer, Rebecca Milne, Brandon May, Lorraine Hope, & Fiona Gabbert

Eliciting accurate and reliable information from witnesses and victims is the life-blood of any blue light service, in particular, Fire and Rescue Services. Attaining information pertinent to an incident can be characterised as challenging, given the complexity of incidents and the emotional volatility of witnesses and victims. Yet, despite the importance of eliciting accurate and reliable information, little research has examined the forensic quality of frontline communication in Fire and Rescue control rooms. This is of particular concern, given the consequences of ineffective communication and the subsequent decision-making processes that follow. This paper will examine the quality of frontline communication in Fire and Rescue control rooms, and how the development of a bespoke communication protocol can extend current legislative frameworks, and national operational guidance.
453, emergency ‘999’ calls to the Fire and Rescue Services in the United Kingdom were assessed using a bespoke coding scheme. The calls were coded for the use and frequency of question types and utterances, as well as rapid rapport building techniques.
Results and Discussion
59% of all questions asked were appropriate; however, rapid rapport building techniques were deemed to require additional enhancement. Full results will be presented and discussed.

Abstract Title:

Witness Interview Strategy for Critical Incidents (WISCI)

Authors: Becky Milne & Kevin Smith

High-profile critical incidents involving multiple witnesses, particularly terrorist attacks, have increased over the years. This paper sets out to describe the components of a witness interview strategy for this type of investigation. Central to these cases is a need for a triage system which deals with many witness/victim interviews that must be conducted in fast time.
The research to be outlined in this presentation is developed based on the experience of the authors who provide practical advice and support to these types of investigations and a dialogue with police interview advisers involved in developing this type of strategy.
It is important that a witness interview strategy is developed for any critical incident involving multiple witnesses to ensure that what could otherwise be a chaotic process is effectively managed. Such a strategy should be set within a framework that covers initial contact with the witnesses, the interview process and post-interview processes. Each facet of the process will be outlined with a golden thread of memory contamination and trauma being discussed.

Chair: Lesley Laver

Abstract Title:

Procedural safeguards for child suspects: What vulnerability looks like in the child suspect.

Authors: Lesley Laver

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) recognise that young people in conflict with the law need to be treated differently from adults. Many member states have developed child-specific provisions that aid young victims or witnesses of crime to be heard in the criminal justice system. However, very few procedural safeguards exist (world-wide) for young suspects. Despite their perhaps ‘tougher’ presentation, young suspects have been shown to have increasingly delayed neuro and socio-cognitive development in comparison to their non-offending peers, leading to deficits in inhibition, attention, time-perception, perspective-taking and interpersonal abilities. This leaves them equally, if not more, vulnerable to confusion, suggestion or compliance than child witnesses and victims. This presentation will explore a few specific communication difficulties common to child suspects and will discuss how these might interfere with the interview process. It will also highlight how the custody process requires a level of understanding that surpasses even many adults and will explore new data that pinpoints some key areas for development. Potential solutions will be offered to these and challenges to effective change in custody will be discussed.

Abstract Title:

A study of interviewer ability: Testing assumptions about assessment of youth understanding

Authors: Meagan McCardle, Kirk Luther, & Brent Snook

Four 13-year-olds were videotaped talking about the happiest moment of their life and then interviewed about their understanding of their interrogation rights. Participants (N = 87) watched one “happiest moment” video and indicated which of 10 interrogation rights they thought the youth in the video would understand. Participants correctly identified the youth’s comprehensive ability for approximately half of the rights (M = 5.79). The mean correct identifications for each condition (i.e., the four youth) were 6.00, 4.95, 6.29, and 5.95. Condition two was substantially lower than the others (Cohen’s d values 0.513 – 0.771), with no other meaningful differences. A regression model including participant’s age, gender, and self-reported experience with youth did not significantly predict number of correct identifications. Canadian law requires that police officers explain legal rights to youth suspects, “in language appropriate to their age and understanding”. The legislation assumes that officers are able to assess the verbal comprehension level of a youth and tailor their own language accordingly. These results suggest that this assumption may be detrimental to the protection of youth suspects. Adults appear unable to reliably predict whether a youth will or will not understand their rights. Replication using a sample of police officers is required.

Abstract Title:

Procedural safeguards for child suspects: Inter-agency dynamics and the fundamental rights of the child

Authors: Lesley Laver & Ching-Yu Huang

This paper considers the complexity of the child suspect interview in the United Kingdom in terms of its uniquely problematic inter-agency dynamic. Children can be considered to have many cognitive ‘deficits’ when compared to adults: Their developing brains are often not yet ready to grasp the same level of abstract thought as ours and they tend not to display the same competence with attention, language and social understanding. This is recognised (to some extent) by the Police and Criminal Evidence Act in the UK, which requires that an additional “Appropriate Adult” be present in juvenile suspect interviews to aid communication, understanding and procedural fairness. The suspect-AA relationship, however, is not protected by legal privilege, creating a paradoxical situation where a child suspect may not be open with their communication aid. This places a number of constraints on the child’s right to effective communication and essentially removes the right to any assistance in a private consultation with a solicitor. This paradox conflicts with the child’s right to a fair trial and is just one of many inter-agency problems that arise in the 70,000+ child suspect interviews each year. This and other inter-agency conflicts are discussed together with potential solutions.

Chair: David Walsh

Abstract Title:

Every (bigger) picture tells a story: Moving on from examining EAC to PEACE!

Authors: Dave Walsh, Andy Griffiths, & Ray Bull

Research findings provide an evidence base for skilled interviewing, though concerns persist with its practice. This paper discusses findings from our three ground-breaking connected studies, connected with tasks primarily undertaken before and after the interviewing task itself has been performed in line with the recommended PEACE framework. That is, preparation and planning, and, in turn, evaluation of conducted interview performance. Firstly, undertaking a novel research paradigm, our survey of 95 investigators found both self-confidence and organisational culture strongly associated with a lack of planning. In our sequel studies, however, we first found that investigators consistently over-rated themselves (when compared to an expert), when using a numerically based index scale to measure interview skills. However, we later found that only investigators, we earlier assessed as skilled, accurately undertook meaningful reflection/evaluation (when asked to undertake a freehand account of their performance). We also found that skills, found in prior studies to be stubbornly problematical, were those least likely to be reflectively discussed (even by the more skilled investigators). Previous research has found reflection to be critical in sustaining professional development. Our findings suggest that research needs further focus on what happens before and after interviews to help better understand what happens therein.

Abstract Title:

Interpreting Modern Slavery Interviews: Broken Links in the Chain of Investigation

Authors: Lauren Wilson, David Walsh, & Ray Bull

The UK has seen an increase in the number of modern slavery (MS) victims, but there has been no corresponding increase in the number of prosecutions. As such, there is growing interest in enhancing the quality and accuracy of investigative interviews for MS crimes. However, as the majority of victims and suspects are foreign nationals, interview evidence might well be distorted by the use of an interpreter. The present study seeks to investigate the impact interpreters have on the quality and accuracy of an interpreter-assisted investigative interviews. For the present study, 13 audio files (9 suspects, 4 victims) of such interviews were obtained from police constabularies in the United Kingdom. Measures were undertaken to evaluate to assess the quality and accuracy of the interpretation. Segments of emotional speech (e.g. shouting/swearing, discussions of rape, etc.) were compared to non-emotional speech (e.g. police caution, discussion of procedure, etc.). Interim findings suggest emotive speech is interpreted differently. Findings also suggest that the longer an interview is undertaken (or the longer the period of interpretation) the more likely such emotional bias appears. Implications for investigative practitioners to improve working relationships with interpreters (and thereby gain better evidence) are discussed.

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Day 3 – Friday 6th July, 2018

Auditorium: ?
Chair: Peter Van Koppen

Abstract Title:

What if Witnesses are Uncooperative? – A Glimpse on Current Interviewing Practice in The Netherlands

Authors: Alejandra De La Fuente Vilar, Robert Horselenberg, & Peter J. van Koppen

Research has informed best practice guidelines to interview witnesses however, their efficacy and application are highly dependent on the level of cooperation from the interviewee, questioning their suitability when witnesses do not cooperate. Despite its importance, how to best interview uncooperative witnesses has received little attention. We aimed to obtain an insight into current interviewing practice when conducting investigative interviews with uncooperative witnesses.
Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten police officers working as interviewers, interviewing instructors, and researchers. Transcribed interviews were analysed following a thematic analysis.
Witness cooperation had a significant impact on interviewing style. Officers identified the lack of a specific interviewing protocol and training to gain witness cooperation challenging. This leads to intuitive interviewing, and great variance in preferred interviewing strategies and question type. While some focus on building rapport and facilitate witness protection to promote disclosure, others focus on confronting witnesses with the legal consequences of lack of cooperation and making moral appeals to overcome witness resistance.
Witnesses’ unwillingness to disclose information during investigative interviews can hinder criminal investigations. Understanding how uncooperative witnesses are interviewed informs how to improve interviewing practice that promotes cooperative reporting and facilitate eliciting complete and accurate witness accounts.

Abstract Title:

Support, Reluctance and Informativeness in the Transitional and Substantive Phases of Investigative Interviews with Alleged Victims of Child Abuse: Comparing the Revised and Standard NICHD Protocols

Authors: Uri Blasbalg, Irit Hershkowitz, Michael E. Lamb, & Yael Karni-Visel

The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol had been revised to emphasize supportive interviewing (Hershkowitz, Lamb, Katz, & Malloy, 2013) because children’s reluctance to testify (Lewy, Cyr, & Dion, 2015) was not adequately addressed when using the Standard Protocol (SP; Orbach et al., 2000), which focused on cognitive, rather than socio-emotional, strategies. The Revised Protocol (RP) effectively enhances interviewers’ supportiveness (Hershkowitz et al., 2017), thereby enhancing children’s cooperativeness and making (valid) disclosures more frequent (Hershkowitz, Lamb, & Katz, 2014) and more spontaneous (Ahern, Hershkowitz, Lamb, Blasbalg, & Karni-Visel, 2018). At the level of individual utterances, supportiveness leads to increases in the coherence and informativeness of children’s accounts (Blasbalg, Hershkowitz, Karni-Visel, & Lamb, 2018a, 2018b; Karni-Visel, Hershkowitz, Blasbalg, & Lamb, 2018).
The current study compared 88 SP and 166 RP interviews of children whose abuse had been independently substantiated. The RP was associated with better interviewer support and questioning as well as reduced reluctance and increased informativeness on the part of children throughout the interview. The main goal of the RP, to equip interviewers with skills to reduce children’s reluctance and elicit fuller accounts appears to have been accomplished.

Abstract Title:

Children’s disclosures of online sexual harassment

Authors: Hanna Lahtinen, Julia Korkman, & Aarno Laitila

The aim of this presentation is to introduce results related to disclosing online sexual harassment based on the Finnish Child Victim Survey 2013. A representative sample of 11364 sixth and ninth graders responded to the survey including a wide variety of questions concerning experiences of abuse including online sexual harassment. Children reporting abuse experiences also answered questions regarding disclosure, reactions encountered when disclosing, and potential reasons for non-disclosing. Results show that 17% of the girls and 8% of the boys reported experiences of online sexual harassment. Most of the children who had experienced online sexual harassment had disclosed to a friend or to their mother. However, compared to experiences of physical abuse or child sexual abuse in real life, disclosing both to friends and adults was less common and reporting it to the police almost non-existent (less than 1%). The reasons for non-disclosure were similar compared to other forms of child abuse, the most common reason being that the experience was not considered serious enough for reporting. Further analyses and implications for investigative interviewing practice will be discussed.

Chair: Nicole Adams-Quackenbush

Abstract Title:

Forensic Interviewing for Mental Health Status of Persons on Remand.

Authors: Barry Parsonson

Court ordered forensic psychological assessments of persons on remand prior to trial relating to fitness to plead and mental capacity to instruct counsel and comprehend court proceedings present challenges. These challenges include identifying any cultural, social, educational and developmental contributions to mental capacity and competence, any effects of exposure to alcohol and drugs, abuse, trauma, and brain injury and discrimination between the influence of these and the presence of mental capacity as defined by the law and mental illness defined by psychiatric diagnostic classification systems. Interviewing is an important element in the process of discriminating between mental capacity and mental illness and other factors affecting mental capacity. This paper identifies issues and outlines strategies relevant to the interviewing process, illustrated by case studies.

Abstract Title:

Process of Forensic Evaluation of Children and Adolescents Victim of Sexual Abuse

Authors: Antonio Serafim

Sexual abuse (SA) constitutes a continuous, epidemic phenomenon and its occurrence is independent of culture of society. Brazil still needs more studies on how to evaluate the emotional and cognitive aspects in the victims of AS. In our experience in the Forensic Psychology and Neuropsychology Ambulatory (NUFOR) – Institute of Psychiatry, Clinical Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of São Paulo, the cases that arrive for forensic psychological evaluation present a gap of time between six months to three years after the occurrence of the abuse due to delays on the judicial system. Objective: to present the procedures for the forensic evaluation of children and adolescents victims of SA performed at NUFOR sent by the Judicial Area of Childhood and Adolescence. Procedures: First step: interviews with parents or guardians; interview with the victim with a questionnaire to Evaluate the Occurrence of SA (verifies number of episodes, type of revelation, measures against disclosure, behavioral, physiological, emotional and cognitive changes). Second step: Cognitive evaluation with neuropsychological battery and emotional impact with personality tests for children and adolescents. Third step: elaboration of the report describing the main findings and orientation of the necessary care. Finally, the report is sent to the judge.

Chair: Michel St-Yves

Abstract Title:

Identifying the Aptitudes of Successful Investigative Interviewers.

Authors: Davut Akca & Joseph Eastwood

In this study, we examined the aptitudes that may affect the success in investigative interviewing. In Study 1, a 50-item aptitudes scale was created by enhancing the 40-item Police Interview Competences Inventory (PICI; DeFruyt et al., 2006). The validity and reliability of this new scale was examined by administering to 300 participants via Qualtrics. The underlying structure of the scale was identified by using principal components analysis. A four-factor model of interview-related aptitudes was found: Benevolent, Communicative-Insisting, Self-controlled, Careful-Tenacious. In Study 2, the association between these aptitude dimensions and interview performance was investigated by using an experimental research design. Across 150 sessions, participants were asked to complete the aptitudes scale and the big five personality test, and then interview witnesses of a mock robbery crime. Interview performance was determined through three different measures: witness’ perceptions of interviewer performance, the amount of information elicited by the interviewer, and interviewer behaviour during the interview (e.g., rapport-building, question types used). Upon completion of researcher ratings, the relationship between interview performance and aptitude dimensions will be analyzed to determine whether individual differences are useful in predicting the effectiveness of an interviewer.

Abstract Title:

On operationalization of empathetic techniques

Authors: Egil Hove Olsvik

The Norwegian prosecution instruction (ex. § 8-11), states that the interviewer “must always remain calm”, and execute a “reasonable consideration” for the interviewed person. These ideal formulations are ambiguous and general, and thereby seem obvious and even superfluous. But, on closer inspection, they actually imply unresolved philosophical – and hence scientific, psychological and even ethical – issues. One central issue concern construct-validity of the empathy-phenomenon, as it is now framed within contemporary theory of investigative interviewing. The paper states that if these problems are not clarified, then the methodological basis of the investigative interview also seems to remain questionable. Because; a) if the interviewee does not feel like participating in a meaningful dialogue on the case, then the use of cognitive techniques is futile, b) empathy may function as a “window” to the others subjective world, and c) legal themes like “wilfulness” and “motivation” may remain obscure. The police-interview has its mandate in documenting legally relevant information, in order to prepare for a fair and just trial. In many hard cases – say of domestic violence, the judge is dependent on a loyal, accurate and credible report, as the physical evidence may glimmer in its absence. Therefore, it seems to be a need for a clearer construct-validity of the notion of “empathy”, in order to formulate a set of empathetic techniques, which may both substantialise documentation of subjective experience, and perhaps even also secure the principle of in dubio pro reo.

Abstract Title:

You Know It Takes Two: Understanding Variance in Interviewer and Witness Performance

Authors: Charlotte Hudson, Liam P. Satchell, & Nicole Adams-Quackenbush

As investigative interviews are complex, dyadic activities, it is important to conduct research reflective of idiosyncrasies in witnesses, interviewers and unique pairings of both. This study explores such sources of variation by making use of a ‘round-robin’ design. This methodology allows the statistical demonstration of individual difference and unique partner-generated variance in interview performance. In our study, a total of 45 witnesses were questioned about five real crime videos. After witnessing each event, witnesses were interviewed by a different interviewer (or a computer self-administered interview). In total, nine ‘rounds’ of interviews occurred, with five new witnesses being interviewed in the same five interview settings (resulting in 225 interviews). After each interview both interviewers and witnesses were asked to complete subjective interview experience ratings. The quality and quantity of information in the statements was coded to index witness report accuracy. Principally, the results demonstrated how the information gathering process can be attributed largely to the unique pairing of interviewer and witness, more than based solely on interviewer questioning preference or witness memory. Whilst interpersonal behaviour can be a focus of interviewer training, the interviewer-explained variance in key behaviours such as suggestive and leading questioning suggests there is still opportunity for development.

Chair: Genevieve Waterhouse

Abstract Title:

Examining the Differential Impact of Parents Versus Interviewers on Children’s Later Event Recall.

Authors: Kelly Warren

The malleability of children’s event recall in the face of inadequate interviewing techniques is well known. Yet, despite much research dedicated to determining ideal interview techniques, little is known about the effect of parent-child discussions on later recall. Children (7-10 years) discussed with either a parent or a trained interviewer, a staged theft, witnessed in the parents’ absence. Parents were either told to talk to their child as they believed they would if their child had witnessed a theft in their absence or they were provided with the interview scheme used by trained interviewers. All children were interviewed on a second occasion, one week later, by a different trained interviewer. Initial and followup interviews were assessed for the completeness and accuracy of recall. In the initial discussion, children recalled more information when talking to a trained interviewer than to their parent. However, among those interviewed by a parent, the amount and accuracy of their recall of specific information differed according to the instructions given to parents. There were very few effects of the initial interview on the one-week follow-up interview, regardless of condition. Results suggest interview techniques used by parents versus trained interviewers may differentially affect children’s event recall.

Abstract Title:

The effects of cognitive load on investigative interviewers’ recall and their perception of mental workload.

Authors: Pamela Hanway, Lucy Akehurst, Zarah Vernham, & Lorraine Hope

Psychological research has informed best practice guidance for interviewing children and vulnerable witnesses. However, interviewers do not always comply with the guidance. Interviewers have to listen actively, remember what an interviewee is saying and formulate hypotheses to account for the events described by interviewees. These attentional demands rely on available cognitive capacity, but people have a limited capacity to perform difficult tasks thus resulting in a cognitive load for interviewers. The current research examined the effects of cognitive load for investigative interviewers. Three groups of participants were given three different sets of instructions, to manipulate cognitive load, prior to watching a video recorded free narrative of a child witness. The accuracy of the participants’ recall about the child’s account was examined as was participants’ perceived mental workload during their task. The findings will provide an understanding of the impact of cognitive load on investigative interviewers’ memory of the testimony of a child and their perceptions of how difficult they found the task.

Abstract Title:

Study Space Analysis for Multiple Interviewing of Child Witnesses.

Authors: Genevieve Waterhouse, Anne Ridley, Ray Bull, & Rachel Wilcock

This presentation describes a Study Space Analysis of the 45 published research studies examining the use of multiple interviews with child victims/witnesses. Study Space Analysis is a method of detecting gaps in the existing literature and thus determining whether ecologically valid situations that are likely to be faced in practice have actually been addressed and studied. The use of this methodology is particularly useful for techniques which are being considered for changes in policy or practice, ensuring that the literature is sufficient to warrant and support change. Multiple or repeated interviewing has been argued by some authors to be ready for change. However, in the present Study Space Analysis, it is concluded that despite a growing literature, there are still some key variables which require research examination prior to policy change. In particular, studies are needed which include longer delays between the event and the initial interview, more than two interviews of a child, children of between 11 and 18 years old, repeated events, and interviews conducted by professional interviewers. The presentation concludes with a call for more research on the topic to ensure our understanding of this promising technique is sufficient to implement policy/practice change.

Chair: Michel St-Yves

Abstract Title:

Controlling the interview: The influencing techniques of suspects of control and coercion.

Authors: Steven Watson, K. Luther, P.J. Taylor, J. Jackson, & L. Alison

In 2015, the UK enhanced protection for victims of domestic abuse by criminalising controlling and coercive behaviour. However, there have been few prosecutions. One suggested reason for the low number of prosecutions is officers’ lack of experience interviewing to convict for control and coercion. Our aims are to help prepare interviewers by examining the influencing techniques used by such suspects.
Control and coercion suspects speech during interviews (N = 25) were content coded for influencing techniques based on a framework developed from existing theory (e.g., neutralization theory, the Table of Ten).
Suspects used four principle forms of influence: (1) rational arguments to convince of their innocence; (2) justifications to minimise perception of harm or deflect blame; (3) relational arguments to bias police perceptions in the suspect’s favour; and (4) reputational arguments to impose dominance in the interview.
A few core arguments were used extensively by most suspects. We also identified a number of less widely used, but nonetheless relevant strategies that suspects used to try to convince officers of their innocence. The strategies identified in the current research can help interviewers prepare for facing ‘typical’ arguments from suspects of controlling and coercive behavior.

Abstract Title:

Safe Space: Examining the Effect of Interview Location on Self-Disclosure.

Authors: Christina Winters, Paul J. Taylor, & Kirk Luther

Security vetting relies on interviewees providing full and accurate disclosure to personal questions about their history, lifestyle, and attitudes. While practical reasons may determine where these interviews occur (e.g., home, interview room), little is understood about how location affects self-disclosure. We address this using a ‘vetting’ paradigm in which university students (N = 124), randomly assigned to interview in their home, an office, a public setting (coffee shop), or online, chose to endorse questions and self-disclose about affiliations, character, criminal transgressions, ego, irresponsible behaviour, and substance use. Interview transcriptions were reliably coded for details using a modified adaptation of Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception (ACID). Participants who interviewed in their homes or online endorsed significantly more questions than those interviewed in the office or in public (ds > 0.55); all other differences were non-significant. Participants who interviewed in their homes provided significantly more details than those interviewed in the office (d = .55) or in public (d = .70), and participants who interviewed online provided significantly more details than those interviewed in public (d = .63); all other differences were non-significant. Our findings suggest that context familiarity may play an important role in the level of sensitive self-disclosure by interviewees.

Abstract Title:

No! It is not me!: Study of police investigators ‘strategies to overcome suspects’ resistance following a polygraph test.

Authors: Michel St-Yves

Even if the confession is no longer the queen of evidence and some methods of interrogation can lead to false confessions, the admission remains the only way to solve crimes when the evidence is insufficient (authors). This explains the efforts that investigators make in implementing strategies to achieve this goal.
In North America, the polygraph often becomes an alternative to insufficient evidence. Even though the polygraph test is always on a voluntary basis, some suspects present themselves with the intention of cheating and beating the lie detector. These investigative interviews often end in a confrontation between the polygraph examiner and the suspect, a struggle of arguments in both directions.
The purpose of this presentation is to describe the types of resistance to confessions faced by investigators in a suspect interview, and to examine the strategies used by investigators to overcome the suspects’ resistance and obtain confessions.
Ethical and legal considerations will also be addressed, as well as the impacts of confessions in the Canadian justice system.

Chair: Robert Horselenberg

Abstract Title:

Issues and Challenges in Interpreter-Assisted Investigative Interview.

Authors: Katrina Mayfield

This study deals with the complexity of the interpreter-assisted investigative interviews of non-English speaking victims and witness and the subsequent witness statement taking procedures in the UK. The consistency and the standard of the investigative interview was the main driver in the study.
The research questions were formulated in order to explore whether practitioners rely on any formal training and guidance documents when interviewing non-English speaking victims and witness. The study was also aimed at exploring issues and challenges within current practices and sought to understand the reasoning behind such matters. The perception of the role of an interpreter in investigative interviews of victims and witnesses, especially in the aspect of impartiality, was also a focus of the study.
A double-survey was designed and completed in order to obtain and analyse some empiric data, based on the perception and experiences of police interpreters and investigators.
A range of inconsistencies, issues and challenges in current practices were identified and analysed as part of the findings. The evidence based conclusions related to the interpreter-assisted investigative interviews were formulated and presented in the paper.
Some practical recommendations can be drawn from the research findings, and strategic decisions can be considered in order to improve current practices in achieving best evidence.

Translating interview protocols for child victims: A case study on the adaptation of the SIM Protocol to Spanish and Chilean context.

Authors: Carolina Navarro, Martine Powell, Tess Knight, & Stefanie Sharman

This case study offers an in-depth analysis of a novel experience on adapting investigative interview protocols for use in a different language and culture. This is the adaptation of the Standard Interview Method (SIM Protocol) to Spanish conducted in Chile, following international recommendations on cross-cultural adaptation of instruments. The analysis aimed to identify translation issues that emerged during the adaptation process. The study also sought to identify the contribution of the different components of the process to the final version of the protocol in Spanish. An interpretive description approach was used to carry out the analysis. First, a description of the case in terms of stages and outcomes is presented, followed by a quantitative description of the improvements introduced to the translated protocol across the adaptation process. A content analysis narrowed the focus to the nature of the adaptation challenges encountered, which were sorted into categories. Issues were identified regarding conceptual, contextual and cultural adequacy. Examples are used to illustrate the type of issues that arise when translating an interview protocol to other languages. The presentation ends by offering practical recommendations on procedures to translate and culturally adapt investigative interview protocols for children to other languages and cultural settings.

Abstract Title:

Expectations of the interpreter’s role in interpreter-mediated investigative interviews.

Authors: Katarzyna Holewik

Investigative interviews are considered fundamental law-enforcement activities and thus, there is no doubt that they need to be as accurate and reliable as possible. In the case of monolingual interviews their success largely depends on e.g. interviewing techniques and strategies, strength of evidence, access to legal advice or an interviewer’s attitude (St-Yves and Deslauriers-Varin 2009). However, in bilingual interviews, there is one more critical factor which may contribute to their success, namely the presence of an interpreter. The paper examines the expectations of the interpreter’s role and factors necessary for effective interpreter-mediated interviews. The concept of the interpreter’s role is considered by the author of the paper as an elaborate one and inherently connected with expectations held by all of the participants in the interaction (Turner 1962, Angelelli 2004). The paper aims at addressing the following questions: – What expectations do police officers, interpreters and trainee interpreters hold of the interpreter’s role in interpreter-mediated police interviews? – Are the expectations held by both parties conflicting or similar? – What are the factors for effective interpreter-mediated interviews from the perspective of police officers and interpreters? What are the possible difficulties for interpreters and how can they affect the success of the interviews? In order to provide answers to these questions, a study has been carried out among the interpreters, trainee interpreters and police officers in southern Poland (Silesia region). Qualitative interviews and questionnaires were used as data collection methods. The study is a part of an ongoing larger research project.

Chair: Feni Kontogianni

Abstract Title:

Minimal Effects of Gaze Direction on Eyewitnesses’ Memory Performance in Mock Interviews.

Authors: Alena Nash, Robert A. Nash, & Nathan Ridout

Averting one’s gaze is generally found to improve cognitive performance by reducing environmental distraction. Research indicates that mutual eye-contact might harm witnesses’ memory performance; however, little is currently known about the effects of interviewers’ and interviewees’ gaze direction during investigative interviews. Therefore, three experiments presented here are the first to explore eyewitness recall under various gaze-direction conditions. In all experiments, participants witnessed a video-recorded incident, and were consequently interviewed about it following a short delay. In Experiment 1, participants either faced the interviewer or faced away during the interview. In Experiment 2, alongside this manipulation of the witness’s gaze direction, the interviewer’s gaze direction was also manipulated – the interviewer either faced the witness, or faced away. In Experiment 3, witness gaze direction was manipulated alongside rapport-building (rapport vs. no rapport). In all experiments, participants recalled the event (free recall) and answered some closed questions. Overall, the effect of witness gaze direction on memory performance was minimal, and neither the aversion of interviewer’s gaze nor rapport-building appeared to magnify this minimal effect. These findings raise important theoretical and practical questions, especially in light of the typical finding that eye-closure, in contrast, can have considerable effects on witness memory.

Abstract Title:

Testing a Multi-Modal Interviewing Format for recall of repeated events.

Authors: Feni Kontogianni, Eva Rubinova, Lorraine Hope, Paul J. Taylor, Aldert Vrij, & Fiona Gabbert

Given the ways that memory for repeated experiences differs from memory of unique experiences, we developed a Multi-Modal Interviewing Format (MMIF) combining the self-generated cues mnemonic, the Timeline Technique, and follow-up open-ended questions, to facilitate recall and reporting of repeated events by adults. Over the course of a week, 150 participants watched four scripted videos depicting meetings of a terrorist network planning an attack and carrying out a presumed bomb disposal. Three videos were highly similar while a fourth video was similar (typical content condition) or differed in two critical details to introduce a deviation to the script (changed content condition). A week later, participants returned to provide their account using the MMIF, the Timeline Technique alone or free recall. Higher correct recall rates and fewer source confusion errors were expected in the changed content condition compared to the typical content condition. The use of the MMIF was hypothesized to elicit more correct information compared to the Timeline Technique and to free recall with fewer source confusion errors between occurrences. Results will be discussed in relation to eliciting information for repeated events in applied settings.

Abstract Title:

Collaborative interviewing of eyewitnesses: How it works in practice.

Authors: Annelies Vredeveldt & Peter J. Van Koppen

Investigative interviewers are generally advised to prevent witnesses from talking to each other. There is a good reason for that: when discussing an event, witnesses can influence each other’s memory. That could lead to errors being transmitted from one witness to the other, and can make it impossible to determine the original source of reported information. However, recent empirical findings show that collaborative interviewing of witnesses can also have considerable benefits. Witnesses are more likely to correct each other’s errors than adopt each other’s errors, and discussion between witnesses can result in new information being reported. In this talk, we will consider what these findings mean in practice. We will propose a way in which investigative interviewers could take advantage of collaborative benefits while curtailing the risk of social contagion and source confusion. Specifically, we propose that collaborative interviews are preceded by individual interviews, and that all interviews are recorded to enable subsequent analysis of changes in statements. We will also discuss a field study commencing in 2018, which involves collaborative eyewitness interviews conducted by investigative services of the Dutch government. We very much welcome a discussion with practitioners to hear their views on collaborative eyewitness interviews in practice.

Chair: David La Rooy

Abstract Title:

Facilitating Emotional Expressions by Alleged Victims of Child Abuse During Investigative Interviews Using the Revised NICHD Protocol.

Authors: Yael Karni-Visel, Irit Hershkowitz, Michael E. Lamb, & Uri Blasbalg

Children’s testimony is often critical to the initiation of legal proceedings in abuse cases. In forensic interviews, emotion expression is a powerful factor enhancing both the quality of children’s statements (Karni-Visel, Hershkowitz, Blasbalg & Lamb, 2018) and perceptions that their statements are coherent (Snow et al., 2009; Westcott & Kynan, 2004) and credible (Cooper et al., 2014). Paradoxically, children rarely express their emotions when reporting abusive events (Katz et al., 2012), although research suggests that supportive prompting for emotions may enhance their reports (Lyon et al., 2012).
The Revised NICHD Protocol (RP) was designed to emphasize supportive interviewing in order to facilitate the development of trust between interviewers and interviewees as well as to effectively address expressions of emotion. Thus, use of the RP was expected to yield more instances, and a wider range of emotions in comparison to the NICHD Standard Protocol (SP).
178 RP and 100 SP interviews with alleged physical abuse victims, whose abuse had been corroborated using independent evidence, were coded to reflect the types and amount of emotions expressed. The RP was associated with increased and more varied expressions of abuse-related emotions. The RP was especially effective for facilitating emotional expression by young children.

Abstract Title:

Justice for preschoolers – results from the adapted protocol.

Authors: Shir Piller, Carmit Katz, Talia Glucklich, & Michal Briteman

Children of all ages are vulnerable to abuse, while preschoolers were found to be at higher risk of being abused. Studies also show that preschoolers are less likely to provide clear, full and reliable testimony when being compared to older children and adults. The present field study aimed to evaluate whether an adaptive protocol taking into consideration the developmental abilities of preschoolers makes a difference. This question was assessed with regard to two main aspects: first, the way that forensic interviewers disseminated the adapted protocol, and second, whether the Adaptive Protocol enriched children’s testimony. The study sample was comprised of 100 forensic investigations with children aged three to six, 27 alleged victims of sexual abuse, and 73 alleged victims of physical abuse. The results show improvement in all aspects of the forensic investigation: the questioning quality; interview duration and the richness of the testimonies. The results suggest that using the adapted protocol presents a significant contribution for preschoolers’ testimony, and can have implications for the legal system and the process of justice.

Abstract Title:

Hypothesis-testing approach in alleged CSA interviews.

Authors: Francesco Pompedda, Sara Landström, & Pekka Santtila

Research has shown how the use of a structured protocol, such as the NICHD, and a recommended questioning style helped interviewers in eliciting more reliable information from children in alleged CSA cases. From a theoretical point of view, research also suggests that a hypothesis-testing approach can help to conduct a more objective and bias-free interview (Dale & Gould, 2014). However, little research, compared to other types of crime (Alison, Doran, Long, Power, & Humphrey, 2013; Fahsing & Ask, 2016) has been conducted on the role of hypothesis testing in alleged CSA cases. In this experiment, we tested the attitudes towards hypothesis testing in a sample of Swedish police officers and students. We also aimed to test if hypothesis testing can counteract two different types of cognitive biases (confirmation and disconfirmation bias) in formulating interview questions. The results will be presented and discussed.

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Social Events iIIRG 10th Annual Conference

This year’s programme includes a great range of social events providing a fabulous opportunity for informal networking. 

Tuesday 4th July, 2017

Welcome reception and buffet dinner – 7 pm – The Club House

monterey-hotel-768x216From 7pm, there will be a free welcome reception at the conference venue.  This will be an excellent opportunity to meet other delegates at the conference.  A buffet dinner will be provided and some free drinks.

Wednesday 5th July, 2017

Networking Event – 4.30pm – De Anza I

Our IIIRG Networking Event will commence on Wednesday 5th July immediately after the Keynote.

The aim of this event is to facilitate new collaborations (and perhaps rekindle old ones!) between investigative interviewing practitioners and academics.

To support exciting and productive collaborations between practitioners and academics, IIIRG is delighted to announce a new funding programme to support member networking and knowledge exchange.  Full details of these Networking Grants and how to apply for them will be provided at the conference.

Taking part in the IIIRG Networking Event

This networking event is open to all so we encourage all practitioners and academics to come along and mingle.

When you register you will be asked to identify yourself as (primarily) a researcher or a practitioner.  You will also be asked to select some key interests (e.g. interviewing victims and witnesses; suspect interviewing; training etc.).

During the networking event, you will be able to use these designations to track down practitioners and/or academics who share your interests – and start a conversation.

Ideally, all attendees will be able to use this Networking Event to extend their contacts and broaden their horizons through increased engagement on the topic of investigative interviewing.

Perhaps you might even kick off new collaborations or projects with your new contacts during 2017?

Wine and soft drinks will be provided.


Student Event – 8pm-10pm

For student delegates, there will be a relaxed social event at Peter B’s Brewpub and Bar (within the Portola Hotel).  Just turn up and meet your fellow student delegates!

Thursday 6th July, 2017

Conference Dinner – 7-10pm

aquarium-300x188This year’s conference dinner will take place at the fantastic Monterey Aquarium. Tickets include entrance to the aquarium, hors d’oeuvres, and a drink. A cash bar will be available.

The aquarium is approximately 25 minutes walk from Portola Hotel and Spa.  You will need to make your own way there.  For walking directions, please click here. Alternatively, there is a free shuttle between the Monterey Conference Center (next door to the Portola hotel) and the aquarium.   The MST Trolley runs every 10-15 minutes.  For more details, click here.

Following tradition, the iIIRG award ceremony will take place during our Conference dinner. Each year, the iIIRG awards its members at any point in their academic or practitioner career who have produced work of outstanding quality and include:

  1. The iIIRG Tom Williamson Award
  2. Practitioner Excellence Award
  3. Academic Excellence Award

More information about the awards can be found here.

Additionally, the iIIRG awards its student members for their work at the conference. This year, there will be a prize for the best piece of student research presented orally at the conference. For more information, visit

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iIIRG Student Social event

Wednesday night – 8:00pm – 10:00pm. Location: Peter B’s Brewpub & Bar

Student Event – 8pm to 10pm at Peter B’s Brewpub & Bar (Portola Hotel)

246-0b5a8cff0ad6854887ed390f853c0e6fCome along to the student event to meet and network with other students who are attending the conference and share similar research interests. The bar is a relaxed place to grab some delicious snacks and cheap drinks—what more could you want?!

For more details about the location, please click here 



iIIRG Student Prize

The student prize for the best piece of student research presented orally at the conference (applications for this prize should have been completed prior to the conference) will be presented at the conference dinner on Thursday night!

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indico_secure_recIndico Systems is a leading provider of secure digital recording and evidential management solutions. Indico Systems software and solutions are changing the way industries record and use recordings in their respective processes, globally.

Indico has more than ten years experience in developing, integrating and testing secure recording solutions. For the criminal justice sector, Indico Systems has helped to improve the performance in suspect, witness and victim interviewing processes over the past decade. More than 100 customers around the world, including police forces, children’s safe houses, courts and the UN today rely on these solutions to save money and time, as well as provide accurate documentation.

Indico was established in 2000, and have offices in Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, and Estonia.


IntersolGlobal2017Logo-890x380Intersol Global is a unique association of world-renowned consultant practitioners academics and clinicians combining hundreds of years experience of investigation and investigative interviewing. Intersol Global enable individuals and institutions to engage in effective empirically-grounded investigation, placing robustly ethical investigative interviewing firmly at the heart of Extraordinary Case Management (ECM™).


Interview Managment SolutionsInterview Managment Solutions (IMS) are delighted to be on board as a co-sponsor of the iIIRG. The conference represents an unrivalled opportunity to meet key practitioners and academics driving research and development in the specialist field of investigative interviewing. We look forward to meeting fellow delegates and to rekindling old friendships and building new relationships.  TILES™ system is available in the Google Play store as a free download from here.



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Getting Here


The Francisco Sá Carneiro Airport is located 11km from Porto and operates regularly with 14 different airlines to 64 destinations.

The quickest and most efficient way to reach Porto´s city centre from the airport is by metro – line E-Violet (Aeroporto – Estádio do Dragão).  This line operates daily from 06:00 – 01:00 and from here, getting to the city centre (either Trindade or Bolhão station) takes about 30 minutes. The Andante ticket needed for this journey can be purchased at any of the automatic ticket machines in the Metro station – occasional ticket (Z4). It costs 2.45€, is valid for 1 hour and 15 minutes and is also rechargeable.

To get to the city centre by bus, you can take either line 601, 602 or 3M (00:00-05:00). In this case, you can buy a single trip ticket on the bus, costing 1.85€.

There are three shuttle services available, to and from the Airport. Two of them to and from an agreed hotel, according to a previous booking, the other one to and from the city centre (25min). In all cases, you must make your booking with the respective service operators:

  • Airportshuttle (Hotel-to-Hotel) – Book online here or by tel. +351 960426692  – daily service from 04:00 to 20:00 – 6,00€/single trip. With Porto Card: free for children aged up to 8, 30% discount for 2 or more passengers.
  • Goin’Porto – Book online here – daily service from 04:30 to 01:00 – 6.00€/single trip, 8.00€/round trip
  • BUS4ALL (Airport/Hotel/Airport) – Book by e-mail at or by tel. +351 961495847 – daily service, 24 hours – 6.00€/person, children aged up to 3 – free. Area covered: Porto, V.N.Gaia, Maia, Matosinhos and Gondomar.
  • Private Shuttle – EFUNGPSTOURS (Aeroporto/Hotel/Aeroporto) – Book by telephone +351 913496213 / +351 914173671 / +351 220923270 – daily service, 24 hours – 1 to 4 pax €30.00; 5 pax €35.00; 6 pax €40.00 (only possible with cabin luggage). With Porto Card: 15% discount

Another option is to take a taxi which costs between 20/25.00€ or rent a car at the airport.


Porto is easy to access from Galicia, the Algarve, Lisbon, Coimbra or from any other point in the country. By car, you can get to Porto from Galicia in around to 2 hours and travel to the Algarve in approximately 5 hours.

Throughout Porto there are various public and private car parks at your disposal.

Besides free national roads (EN, IC, IP), the city has various highways with toll charges:  A1 Lisbon, linking to the Algarve; A3 Valença (Minho), linking to Galicia; A4 Amarante (Trás-os-Montes), linking to Bragança; A28 (Porto – Cerveira) and A29 (Porto – Aveiro/Cantanhede).  Some of these highways are to be paid at the end of the trip with the ticket that must be collected at the beginning of the highway. The ways showing the sign “Via Verde” are for monthly-pass holders only.

Other highways or parts of highway have only electronic tolls. It means that there are no cabins and the passing of vehicles is detected by devices placed at the beginning of those highways.The highways are identified at the beginning with: “Electronic toll only”.

  • Highways with electronic tolls covering Porto and the northern region:
    • A28: Coastal North-highway – between Porto and Vilar de Mouros/Caminha
    • A4: Porto/Amarante-highway (between Matosinhos and Águas Santas)
    • A41: Circular Regional exterior do Porto (Porto Regional Outer Circular)
    • A42: Alfena-Lousada-highway

How to pay for electronic tolls (vehicles with foreign licence plates):

  • EASYtoll
    • This system associates the vehicle’s licence plate with a credit card (MasterCard or Visa). The toll amounts due are automatically debited to the card’s account.
    • A receipt (valid for 30 days, which should be kept) is issued at the time of subscription.
    • Licence numbers can be corrected and memberships can be cancelled via Call Centre, or at
    • Signing up at the following locations: EN13 – Vila Nova de Cerveira; A24 – 3.5 km from the Caves/Verin border crossing; A25 – Alto de Leomil service area; and A22 – Vila Real de Santo António
    • Prepaid cards for €5, €10, €20 or €40
    • Activation and direct association with licence number by the customer via cell phone SMS (instructions on card).
    • More than one card may be activated, with cumulative balances.
    • The balances activated are drawn down according to use.
    • Balances can be checked at
    • Customers will receive an alert SMS when the balance reaches zero.
    • Available at post offices, service areas and at
    • 3-day prepaid ticket at a fixed price of €20, with unlimited used during its validity period.
    • Available for light vehicles.
    • Can be purchased at, at national hotels or at “Easytoll” toll booths
    • Lease of temporary “Via Verde Visitors” device (€6 for the first week, and €1.50 for each following week; refundable deposit of €27.50). Consumption according to use, and valid for 90 days.
    • “Via Verde Device” membership, with debit from bank account.
    • Via Verde products are valid throughout the nation’s entire road network, and can be purchased at Via Verde outlets and authorized agents, post offices (CTT) and Automóvel Club de Portugal (ACP) outlets. In Spain, they are available at Banco Caixa Geral, RESSA ( or Servisa (

For further information on these options go to:

National and international road passenger transport

You can travel to or from Porto with ease from any point in Portugal or Europe.  In doing so, you have a number of road transport services which offer regular city links.

From the international transport terminal you are provided with the following options when travelling to the city centre:

  • Metro: lines A –  Blue (Estádio do Dragão –  Senhor de Matosinhos), B – Red (Estádio do Dragão – Póvoa de Varzim), C – Green (Campanhã / ISMAI), E – Violet (Estádio do Dragão – Aeroporto) and F – Orange (Fânzeres/Senhora da Hora).  The Andante ticket needed for this journey can be purchased at any of the automatic ticket machines in the Metro stations, occasional ticket (Z2). It costs €1.80, is valid for 1 hour, and is rechargeable.
  • Bus lines 501, 502 and 201 are also available and by taxi the journey costs around €6.00.


Porto is served by international trains, Alfa Pendular (high-speed train), intercity, inter-regional, regional and urban trains, connecting the city to several destinations inside and outside the country.

The Campanhã train station is the busiest in the city and the S. Bento railway station is the most central one. From Campanhã, you can travel to the city centre by train to S. Bento (this journey is included in the Alfa ticket), or by metro on lines:

  • A – Blue (Estádio do Dragão – Senhor de Matosinhos);
  • B – Red (Estádio do Dragão – Póvoa de Varzim);
  • C – Green (Campanhã / ISMAI);
  • E – Violet (Estádio do Dragão – Aeroporto) and
  • F – Orange (Fânzeres/Senhora da Hora).

The Andante ticket needed for  this journey can be purchased at any of the automatic ticket machines in the Metro stations, occasional ticket (Z2). It costs €1.80, is valid for 1 hour and is rechargeable.

You can take the 207 bus to the city centre or go by taxi, which costs around €10.00.

CP´s urban trains allow you to travel to nearby towns, such as Vila Nova de Gaia, Espinho, Guimarães, Braga, Viana do Castelo and Aveiro. Train tickets must be purchased before your journey, from sales points or automatic ticket machines.


The Leixões Port is located a few kilometres from Porto and receives cruise vessels from various parts of the world.  For further information on cruises, check the APDL – Administração dos Portos do Douro e Leixões’s website.

To get to the city centre, you have an excellent metro connection through Line A (Blue) – Senhor de Matosinhos- Estádio do Dragão.  The Andante ticket needed for this journey can be purchased at any of the automatic ticket machines in the Metro stations, occasional ticket (Z3). It costs €2.10, is valid for 1 hour and is rechargeable.

To get to the city centre by bus, you can use line 507.

A taxi journey costs approximately 16.00€.

Porto also has a few marinas for those who enjoy sailing: the Freixo Marina, in the Freixo area, and the Porto Atlântico Marina, in Leixões, outside the city.

Rio Douro Crossing – Lordelo do Ouro/Afurada

Crossing the river Douro between Cais do Ouro (near the Arrábida bridge), in Porto, and Afurada, in Vila Nova de Gaia.  This operates every 15 mins from 09:00 – 22:00 (15 min/ 45 min – Ouro Quai; hour / 30 min- Afurada Quay).  Tickets cost €1.50 and can be purchased on the boat.

Metro (Metro do Porto)

Running daily between 06:00 – 01:00, the Porto metro service has 6 lines that connect the outskirts of the city to the centre:

  • Line A (Blue) – Estádio do Dragão – Senhor de Matosinhos
  • Line B (Red) – Estádio do Dragão – Póvoa de Varzim
  • Line C (Green) – Estádio do Dragão – ISMAI
  • Line D (Yellow) – Hospital São João – D. João II
  • Line E (Violet) – Estádio do Dragão – Aeroporto
  • Line F (Orange) – Senhora da Hora – Fânzeres

The Andante travel pass can be bought at the Andante shops, Andante sale points, STCP service points, train station ticket offices with Andante sale points and in the Mobility Centre (S. Bento railway station).  The Andante occasional ticket, from Z2 to Z12, depending on the number of zones included in your journey, can also be purchased from the automatic ticket machines in the Metro stations and from the Tourism Office – Centre (25, Rua Clube dos Fenianos). This ticket is valid for the minimum of an hour and is rechargeable.

There are also Andante Tour tickets, 1 day – €7.00 (available at the Trindade metro and S. Bento train station ticket offices and on the buses) and 3 days – €15.00 (also available at the Trindade metro station and the S. Bento train station ticket offices). This ticket allows you unlimited travel on bus and metro.  For further information check Metro do Porto.

Bus (STCP)

STCP buses operate:

  • Daytime service: 05:00 – 00:30 (Some lines only run until 21:00)
  • Night service (Lines 1M to 13M): 00:00 – 05:00

Some buses are already equipped with accessibility platforms for people with reduced mobility.

STCP tickets (to be validated upon entering the bus) can be purchased from Payshop offices, train station ticket offices, post offices, Andante shops, automatic ticket machines and at the STCP or Andante service points.

The Andante tickets can be bought at the ticket machines in the metro stations, the Andante shops, Andante sale points, STCP service points, train station ticket offices with Andante sale points and in the Mobility Centre (S. Bento railway station).

It is also possible to get a Single Trip Ticket (Título Agente Único) in the bus (bought for that trip only) – €1.85, and the Andante Tour 1 – €7.00 – that allows you to travel on the Andante network for 24 consecutive hours after your first validation.

Tram (STCP)

There are 3 lines operating:

  • 1 – Infante/Passeio Alegre
  • 18 – Massarelos/Carmo
  • 22 – Batalha/Carmo

Timetables can be found at each stop.

Single trip tickets can be bought in the tram at a cost of €2.50.

Guindais funicular (Metro do Porto)

Connects the Batalha area to the Ribeira area.  During the conference it will be running 08:00-22:00 (Sun to Wed) and 08:00-24:00 (Thur to Sat).  A single trip Funi can be purchased on site – €2.50.


Available 24 hours a day from clearly signposted taxi ranks throughout the city or by phone.  Most taxis have a capacity of 4 passengers, however there are also 8 passenger taxis available. Every taxi has a meter indicating the cost of your journey which is to be paid at the end of the trip. The receipt is compulsory.  Tariff charges are posted on the window of the rear door, on the left side of the taxi.

Car rental

You can rent a car at the airport or at various places throughout the city. Typical rental requirements:  Aged over 21 or  25, driving for at least 1-3 years, full driver’s licence, Identification card/Passport and credit card.  For further information, click here.


The cycle lanes in Porto are mainly located by the riverside and seaside, but there are also lanes located in other parts of the city. Porto is a hilly city in some areas, nevertheless it is possible for you to ride through the city in a safe way. For the moment there are six cycle lanes available:

  • Asprela: Although some parts of the lane are set on the road, these are used by velocipedes only. This lane is 3.5 km long and was built in 2012.
  • Prelada: Urban one connecting the road EN12 to Carvalhido, thus linking the city surroundings to the city centre. It is 1.24 km long and it was inaugurated in 2011.
  • Seaside/Riverside: Lane serving leisure activities, beginning at the western entrance of the City Park (by the Transparent Building) and finishing at the Largo António Calem. It was inaugurated in 2007 and it is 4.86km long, with another 1.72km of shared lane.
  • Pasteleira Park: Lane serving leisure activities. It is part of the Pasteleira Urban Park, it is 0.7km long and it was inaugurated in September 2009.
  • Foz da Ribeira da Granja: Lane beginning at the eastern entrance of the City Park (Av. do Parque) and finishing at the Largo António Calém. It is 3.8km long and it was inaugurated in 2009.
  • Av. da Boavista: Lane serving leisure activities, whose first part is located between Praça de Gonçalves Zarco and Av. do Parque. It is 2.2km long and it was inaugurated in 2011.

Porto Card

With the Porto Card, when using the modalities 1, 2, or 3 days, you are allowed unlimited travel by the transport operators associated with the Andante intermodal network (metro, bus, urban trains) during the card’s validity period. You can purchase your Porto Card at the Porto Tourism Offices, in the Porto Airport at several railway stations and from any associate entity.  Further information is available here.


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Books of Interest

witness testimony flyer

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Masterclass 2018

The iIIRG will be hosting two two-day pre-conference Masterclasses from the 2nd to the 3rd of July 2018.

Evidence-Based Best-Practice in Conducting, Coding and Evaluating Child Forensic Interviews

This Masterclass will be held by Prof. Irit Hershkowitz. Two workshops focused on evidence-based best-practice in conducting, coding and evaluating child forensic interviews will be provided.

Day 1 workshop – Non-suggestive questioning strategies

This workshop aims to highlight the cognitive principles underlying the NICHD Protocol practices and the corresponding methods for monitoring the quality of questioning. A coding scheme for identifying questions types will be presented and practiced with real-life child abuse investigative interviews.

Learning outcomes:

    • Understand the role of memory-retrieval strategies
    • Learn the value of practice interviews and free-recall throughout the interview
    • Be able to identify various types of questioning and their underlying retrieval mechanisms
    • Learn how to evaluate the overall quality of questioning and this of forensic statements

Day 2 workshop – Non-suggestive supportive strategies

The second workshop presents supportive yet non-suggestive evidence-based practices in forensic interviewing. A taxonomy of supportive techniques designed to make children more comfortable and to encourage them to share their experiences will be discussed. Then a corresponding coding scheme for identifying appropriate and inappropriate supportive interventions will be applied on transcripts of real-life investigative interviews.

Learning outcomes:

  • Recognize the role of non-suggestive support
  • Learn various supportive techniques, adapted for forensic use
  • Be able to distinguish appropriate from inappropriate supportive interventions
  • Learn how to evaluate the overall dynamics of support and cooperation in child investigative interviews

Audience: This workshop is for researchers and practitioners who want to enhance their knowledge of best-practice questioning, and build skills for analyzing and evaluating forensic interviews. There will be a significant amount of experiential activities and participants will practice coding and evaluation of interviews.


IritProfessor Irit Hershkowitz, Professor of Social Work, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Irit is one of the founders of the NICHD protocol, and more recently, of the Revised NICHD protocol.

For over two decades, she has conducted field research on best practice concerning child interviews and has specifically focused on the value of protocol-guided interviews. She has been largely involved in domestic and international training for child investigators. Irit is co-author of the book ‘Tell me what happened: structured investigative interviews of child victims and witnesses’ (Chichester, UK and Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008; in press) and author of many scientific articles and book chapters.


The role of investigative interviewing in judicial decision making

This Masterclass will be chaired by Carlos Eduardo Peixoto and John Halley, with additional presenters Gavin Oxburgh, Rui do Carmo, and Trond Myklebust.

Over several decades there have been important developments in research and practice as to how investigative interviews with children and adults should, and should not, be conducted. Progressively, in several jurisdictions, legislation, procedural rules, guidance and interview protocols have been adopted and implemented for the purpose of obtaining the best evidence in terms of quality and quantity of information.

The quality of evidence is crucial in judicial decision-making processes. Often, the quality of the evidence elicited in investigative interviews will have a crucial bearing upon whether a case is proved in a particular judicial process, whether to civil or criminal standards.  The prior recorded statements (elicited in investigative interviews) of victims and suspects can be crucial as to whether additional oral evidence is required from them in distressing cases such as those involving allegations of sexual abuse.

This masterclass will focus on these aspects of legal proceedings with reference to the frameworks in four different jurisdictions: Portugal; Scotland; England; and Norway. It will consider how legal professionals assess investigative interviews and how the legal systems deal with issues relating to the quality of evidence.  It will consider to what extent evidence based investigative interview methods may be important when contrasted with other methods.

carlosCarlos Eduardo Peixoto

Phd in Psychology from University of Porto (Portugal). Forensic Psychology in the Northern Branch of the Portuguese National Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences Institute (INMLCF, I.P.). Researcher at the Centre for Studies in Human Development (CEDH) of the Catholic University of Portugal (Oporto Regional Centre). Invited Auxiliar Professor at the University of Porto Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS). Author and co-author of several scientific publications (papers in peer-review journals, books and books chapters) in subjects related to the field of Forensic Psychology, such as forensic psychological assessment, credibility assessment, and children and adults forensic interview.


John-HalleyJohn Halley

John Halley is an experienced advocate and judge in Scotland.  John was called to the bar in 1997, having previously worked in residential social work with young people in the care system.  He initially appeared in many cases involving children’s interests.  He served as an Advocate Depute, or High Court prosecutor in Scotland, for several years between 2003 and 2010.  He was appointed as a part time Sheriff (a judge with both civil and criminal jurisdiction, including criminal jury trials) in 2010.  Since then he has presided over, and appeared as advocate in, many civil and criminal cases involving children’s interests and issues arising from the interviewing of children.  From October 2015 until October 2016 he was one of the leading counsel to the Scottish Child Abuse Inquiry.  John has pursued an active interest in the improvement of the conduct of child interviews in Scotland.

Rui do Carmo

Retired Public Prosecutor. Coordinator of the Domestic Violence Homicide Retrospective Analysis Team (EARHVD). Associated researcher at the Social Studies Center, and member of the Family Law Center, both from the University of Coimbra (Portugal). Author of several publications on Penal and Procedural Law, Family and Children Law, and on judicial communication and language.

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Masterclass Programme

Monday 3rd July – Investigative and Intelligence Interviewing

8:00am Registration opens
9:00am Welcome & Opening Remarks Steven Kleinman & Christian Meissner
9:30am Imminent Threat Interviewing Laurence Alison et al.
10:45am Morning break and tea/coffee
11:00am Imminent Threat Interviewing (continued) Laurence Alison et al.
12.30pm Lunch
1:30pm Developing Trust and Rapport in the Interview Context Simon Oleszkiewicz
2:45pm The Scharff Method Steven Kleinman
3:45pm Afternoon break and tea/coffee
4:15pm “What Works” Project Erik Phillips
4:45pm Discussion and Wrap-up Christian Meissner
5:30pm End of Day

Tuesday 4th July

8:30am Registration opens
9:00am Welcome & Opening Remarks  Christian Meissner
9:15am HIG Training and Field Validation Studies Susan Brandon & Christian Meissner
9:45am Morning break and tea/coffee
10:15am The Challenges of a Science-Based Practice Matt Jones
11:15am Detecting Deception Aldert Vrij & Sharon Leal
12:00pm Lunch
1:00pm Detecting Deception (continued) Aldert Vrij & Sharon Leal
3:15pm Afternoon break and tea/coffee
3:45pm Managing Uncertainty Greg Phillips
4:30pm Discussion and Wrap-up Christian Meissner & Steven Kleinman
5:00pm End of Masterclass
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