The iIIRG 10th Annual Conference

Aerial_view_-_Monterey_CA

Welcome to Monterey

DowntownMonterey&Harbor-2This year’s conference takes place at the beautiful Portola Hotel and Spa, and will be of interest to all professionals (academic researchers, law enforcement agencies, Government and International bodies, Judges, lawyers & students) involved in the investigation of crime and misconduct, the interviewing of victims, witnesses & suspected offenders (including ‘subjects’ and ‘insiders’), interview training and policy, interview decision-making processes, detecting deception, forensic linguistics, and high interest detainees.

 

 

Northern-California-Coastline-near-Garrapata-State-Park-Big-Sur-Carmel-Monterey-Tranquil-Calm-Soothing-Rocky-Creek-Bridge_D818685-LThe 2017 Conference and Masterclass offers delegates a diverse programme of professional and leisure activities in the beautiful surroundings of Monterey Bay. The Masterclass will be focusing on exploring the emerging research reshaping investigative and intelligence interviewing.  Additionally, we will be hearing fascinating keynotes from a number of international speakers, and the presentations will span multiple disciplines and justice systems. Delegates will enjoy a unique array of social activities including our conference dinner at the fantastic Monterey Aquarium.

Reminders

  • If you are using a PowerPoint presentation when you present your paper or session during the conference, you will need to bring it on a USB stick or hard drive (Windows-compatible). It would be wise to bring a backup version as well.
  • Access to the wifi –
    • Wifi: Portola Hotel and Spa
    • Password:  Jacks
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Conference Programme



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Tuesday 4th July, 2017
7:00pm Conference Welcome Reception
The Club House
DAY ONE – Wednesday 5th July, 2017
7:30am Registration – iIIRG conference centre
9:00am Conference Opening and Welcome by Directors of iIIRG and Steve Kleinman
De Anza I
9:30am What works in investigative interviewing? Mapping the literature
De Anza I
Fiona Gabbert, Lorraine Hope, Gavin Oxburgh
10:20am REFRESHMENT BREAK
Parallel sessions
De Anza I Bonsai I Bonsai II
Theme: Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation Theme: Skills, Training, and Consultancy Theme: Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Genevieve Waterhouse Chair: Tatiana Tkacukova Chair: Kristjan Kask
TIME PAPER PAPER PAPER
10:50am Ray Bull & Hayley Clearly: Jail inmates’ opinions of police interrogations. Lauren Wilson, Dave Walsh, & Ray Bull: Emotional bias in interpreter-assisted investigative interviews. Mick Confrey: Interviewing the reluctant, intimidated, and hostile.
11:15am Michel St-Yves, Élodie Larocque, & Jean-Pierre Guay: Questioning a suspect in the polygraph room – Can verbal and non-verbal cues to help to detect deceptives and truthfuls? David Mount: Factors impacting on the positive transfer of investigative interviewing skills from the training environment to the police workplace: A case study.
11:40am  Mick Confrey: Interviewing supergrasses. Steve Warren, Gavin Oxburgh, Pam Briggs, & David Wall: How might crime-scripts be used to support the effectiveness of investigative interviews? Gary Keith Banks, & Peiling Kong: “I can’t recall, no really I honestly can’t recall” The use of cognitive interviewing to address a question of fitness that instead became a conviction of murder
12:05pm
12:30pm LUNCH
Parallel sessions
De Anza I Bonsai I Bonsai II
Theme: Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation Theme: Skills, Training, and Consultancy Theme: Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Mick Confrey Chair: Gary Pankhurst Chair: William Webster
1:30pm Allison Redlich, Christopher Kelly, & Jeanee Miller: Accusatorial and information-gathering interview and interrogation methods: A multi-country comparison. Marilena Kyriakidou: Questioning, police manuals and quantisation. Mélany Payoux, & Nadège Verrier: Suggestibility or suggestibilities? Impact on memory.
1:55pm Collins Kane, & Kate Haworth: Police interview transcripts in U.S. internal investigations: Fit for purpose? Fiona Gabbert, Lorraine Hope, David La Rooy, Ashleigh McGregor, Rebecca Milne, Gavin Oxburgh, & Tom Ellis: The Structured Interview Protocol: A research-based PEACE-compliant investigative interviewing training programme.
 2:20pm  Annie Heini: Coming of age: A comparative analysis of police interview discourse in interviews with 17 and 18-year-old suspects in England.  Gavin Oxburgh, Tyson Amurun, & Dave Walsh: The use of interpreters in investigative interviews: A survey of practitioners. Tatiana Tkacukova, Matt Gee, Fiona Gabbert, Gordon Wright, & Lorraine Hope: Investigating impact of training for frontline police officers: the PEACE-compliant Structured Interview Protocol training.
2:45pm Naoko Yamada-Furuta, Yuko Yamasaki, & Makoto Ibusuki:  How the combination of camera angles and interview techniques affects on jury’s fact-finding: A research based on the experimental data. Claire Tranter, & Coral Dando: Cognition in Context: Investigating the impact of cognitive style on persuasion using synthetic realities. Wesley Clark: BELIEF Interviewing.
3:10pm REFRESHMENT BREAK
3:40pm Keynote Address: Mark Fallon, former Assistant Director for Training, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Dept. of Homeland Security.
De Anza I
Chair: Steve Kleinman
4:30pm Practitioner – Researcher Networking Event:  Forming Partnerships and Collaborations.
De Anza I
Lorraine Hope


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DAY TWO – Thursday 6th July, 2017
8:00am Registration – iIIRG conference centre
9:00am Keynote Address: Chris Kelly, Saint Joseph University, USA
De Anza I
Chair: Fiona Gabbert
9:45am Sponsor Talk: Indico Systems
De Anza I
10:15am REFRESHMENT BREAK
Parallel sessions
De Anza I Bonsai I Bonsai II
Theme: Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation Theme: Skills, Training, and Consultancy Theme: Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Steve Clappison Chair: Nisha Baker Chair: Alistair Graham
TIME PAPER PAPER  PAPER
10:35am Jim Trainum, & Andy Griffiths: Symposium – Lessons learned from investigative reviews of US homicide interrogations Gregory Phillips, Steven Longford, & Clair Nunn-Furzey: Symposium – More than models: Towards the practice of professional inquiry: An examination of the underlying abilities necessary to develop mastery in the inquiry professions. Donna Taylor, Coral Dando, Kayleigh Gibbs, & Aleksandra Jagielka: Cognition in context: A comparison of eyewitness retrieval in face-to-face, remote avatar mediated, and asynchronous vocal smartphone interviews.
11:00am William Webster, Gavin Oxburgh, Dame Vicki Bruce, & Coral Dando: The use and efficacy of empathy during forensic interviews with victims of rape.
11:25am Angelica Hagsand, Jaqueline Evans, & Nadja Schreiber Compo: In vino veritas: Alcohol intoxicated person’s willingness to report unethical or criminal behaviour carried out by themselves or others.
 11:50am Annegrete Palu, & Kristjan Kask: Improving or hindering? The effect of using neutral visual aids in interviewing child eyewitnesses.
12:15pm LUNCH
1:30pm AGM for iIIRG Members ONLY
De Anza I
2:00pm Invited Talk: Geir Egil Løken, National Criminal Investigation Service, Norway
Information-led interviewing: The interview Anders Behring Breivik
De Anza I
Chair: Gavin Oxburgh
Parallel sessions
De Anza I Bonsai I Bonsai II
Theme: Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation Theme: Skills, Training, and Consultancy Theme: Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Ray Bull Chair: Gavin Oxburgh Chair: Trond Myklebust
2:30pm Laure Brimbal, Maria Hartwig, Jonathan Jackson, Ben Bradford, & Emily Joseph: Moving forward: Bringing about change in interrogation practice. Gary Pankhurst, William Webster, Laura Oxburgh, & Gavin Oxburgh: Symposium – Study Space Analysis: An evaluation of concept applied to investigative interviewing Thomas Saczkowski: Working with Anti-Police Ideation in Investigative Interviews with Children and Youth.
2:55pm Laure Brimbal, & Angela Jones: Perceptions of suspect statements: A comparison of exposed lies and confessions. Trond Myklebust: Investigative interviews of children: The Nordic model.
3:20pm REFRESHMENT BREAK
Parallel sessions
De Anza I Bonsai I Bonsai II
Theme: Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation Theme: Skills, Training, and Consultancy Theme: Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Kate Haworth Chair: Lorraine Hope Chair: Leslie Cuthbert
3:50pm Wesley Clark: Case study of a sexual assault: Investigative strategy, language & truth. Tom Willems: Symposium – A behaviourally informed interview model for fraud and corruption investigations Telma Sousa Almeida, & Michael E. Lamb: The impact of Autism Spectrum Disorders on event memory, accuracy and suggestibility.
4:15pm Genevieve Waterhouse, Rachel Wilcock, Anne Ridley, & Ray Bull: Mock-juror reactions to multiple interview presentation styles and rapport-building.
4:40pm Francesco Pompedda, Jan Antfolk & Pekka Santtila: Training using simulated interviews with avatars. Effects on interviews of children that have witnessed a mock event. Carla MacLean, Lorraine Hope, & Fiona Gabbert: The Self-administered Witness Interview Tool (SAW-IT): Enhancing witness recall of adverse industrial events.
5:05pm End of Presentations Day Two
7:00pm Formal Conference Dinner and Awards Ceremony at Monterey Bay Aquarium (ONLY for delegates who have purchased tickets)


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DAY THREE – Friday 7th July, 2017
8:00am Registration – iIIRG conference centre
9:00am Invited Talk: Amshula Jayaram, The Innocence Project
De Anza I
Chair: Lorraine Hope
Parallel sessions
De Anza I Bonsai I Bonsai II
Theme: Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation Theme: Skills, Training, and Consultancy Theme: Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: William Webster Chair: Nisha Baker Chair: Gordon Wright
TIME PAPER PAPER PAPER
9:30am Bianca Baker, Dave Walsh, & Ray Bull: Exploration of Empathy Employment in Investigative Interviews: International Police Perspectives from 10 Countries. Sarah Shaffer, Kureva Matuku, & Jacqueline Evans: Intelligence-gathering approaches for more and less capable sources: A comparison of the Scharff technique with accusatory and direct interview techniques. Jane Goodman-Delahunty, Natalie Martschuk. Martine Powell, & Nina Westera: Pre-recorded police interviews of vulnerable witnesses as evidence-in-chief: A review of their features and uses at trial.
9:55am Lorraine Hope, Feni Kontogianni, Kristoffer Geyer & Fiona Gabbert: Using innovative information elicitation formats to elicit complex and detailed intelligence. Kazuki Hirama, Kaeko Yokota, Taeko Wachi, Yusuke Otsuka, Kazumi Wantanabe:  The applicability of cognitive interview instructions via telephone-based interviews.
10:15am Sponsor Talk: Intersol Global
De Anza I
Chair: Trond Myklebust
10:40am REFRESHMENT BREAK
Parallel sessions
De Anza I Bonsai I Bonsai II
Theme: Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation Theme: Skills, Training, and Consultancy Theme: Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Stephen Clappison Chair: Gary Pankhurst Chair: Bianca Baker
TIME PAPER PAPER PAPER
11:00am Laura Farrugia, & Fiona Gabbert: What they do and what they should do: The Appropriate Adult intervention in vulnerable suspect interviews. Claire Nee, Jean-Louis Van Gelder, Amy Meenaghan, Marco Otte, & Zarah Vernham: The use of Virtual Reality in offender research: implications for investigative interviewing.. Erik Phillips, & Christian Meissner: The ‘What Works’ project.
11:25am Sponsor Talk: Interview Management Solutions
De Anza I
Chair: Fiona Gabbert
12:00pm LUNCH
Parallel sessions
De Anza I Bonsai I Bonsai II
Theme: Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation Theme: Skills, Training, and Consultancy Theme: Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Stephen Clappison Chair: Gary Pankhurst Chair: Bianca Baker
1:00pm Laurence Alison & Emily Alison: Imminent threat interviewing: Findings from field studies and training exercises. Kate Haworth, & Nicci MacLeod: Language and communication training for police interviewers: Applying linguistics to professional practice. Jacqueline Wheatcroft, Graham Wagstaff, Alice Cadogan, Adela Sobrepera: The effect of mood and the Liverpool Interview Protocol (LIP) on memory accuracy and confidence.
1:25pm Tom Ellis: Contextualising body cameras’ impact on domestic violence: A simple case of recording first encounters? Rebecca Wheeler, Fiona Gabbert, S Clayman, S Jones:  Information gathering with reluctant witnesses: A practitioner survey.
1:50pm Keynote Address:  Detective Matthew Jones, Tempe (AZ) Police Department, USA
De Anza I
Chair: Steve Kleinman
2:35pm Conference Closure and Invite to the 11th Annual iIIRG Conference 2018 (Portugal)
De Anza I
Chair: Carlos Eduardo dos Santos Piexoto & Trond Myklebust
3:00pm End of  Conference
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Keynotes

This year will involve three keynotes from international experts.

Mark Fallon, Ex-Assistant Director for Training at the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center within the Department of Homeland Security, USA

unspecifiedMark Fallon is an author, international security consultant and career national security professional.  He spent more than 30 years as a federal agent, counterintelligence officer and counterterrorism specialist.  Positions included serving as the NCIS Deputy Assistant Director for Counterterrorism and appointment to the Security Senior Executive within the Department of Homeland Security.  Mark has been involved in some of the most significant counterterrorism operations in U.S. history, including the investigation of Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman (“the Blind Sheik”), the terrorist attack on the USS Cole and after the attacks of 9/11, he was appointed as the Deputy Commander of a task force created specifically to investigate the al-Qaida terrorist network for trials before military commissions.
Mark is the Vice Chair of the International Association of Chiefs of Police IMPACT Section and member of the High Value Detainee Interrogation Group Research Committee.  Mark is the author if Unjustifiable Means: The Inside Story of How the CIA, Pentagon and U.S. Government Conspired to Torture.

 

Dr Christopher E. Kelly, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, Saint Joseph University

chris kellyChristopher E. Kelly, Ph.D., is an assistant professor in the Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice at Saint Joseph’s University in Philadelphia, PA. Prior to joining the faculty at Saint Joseph’s, Dr. Kelly was funded by the High Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG), an interagency collaboration established to promote the effective and humane interrogation of detained individuals. Dr. Kelly has been the Principal Investigator or Co-Principal Investigator on three awards made by the HIG, and he has collaborated on research with the Philadelphia Police Department, the Los Angeles Police Department, and currently, with the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department. Dr. Kelly has been published in Law and Human Behavior, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, and Justice Quarterly, among other outlets, and he is a member of the American Psychology-Law Association and the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group. He earned a bachelor of science in sociology from Drexel University, a master of arts in criminal justice from the University of Albany, and a PhD in criminal justice from Temple University.

 

Mark Severino, Detective Supervisor, Los Angeles Police Department

A thirty-year veteran of the Los Angeles Police Department, Detective Supervisor Mark Severino is currently assigned to the Major Crimes Division, Criminal Investigation Section.  A co-founder of this unit, Mark and his colleagues are tasked with investigating individuals and groups engaged in criminal activity relating to terrorism and transnational organized crime. In addition, Detective Severino established the undercover interrogation program with the objective of eliciting incriminating statements from violent offenders and continues to manage LAPD’s Advanced Undercover Course. His scope of responsibilities also includes coordinating research data, protocols and advanced undercover interrogation training between LAPD’s Major Crimes Division and the U.S. Government’s High Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG).

Detective Severino is a recognized expert in traditional and non-traditional investigative methods to include undercover platforms and operations, covert operations, physical and electronic surveillance, and informant handling. He has been frequently called upon to leverage his expertise and experience in support of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Department of Homeland Security, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and an array of European law enforcement agencies. Moreover, he has presented classified briefings to the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Homeland Security regarding complex terrorism and counterintelligence investigations originating from Los Angeles.

Detective Severino’s prior assignments include the FBI’s Violent Crime Task Force and as a senior investigator of gang-related crimes. He was nominated for the International Association of Chiefs of Police Community Policing Award and recognized by the Urban Institute and Community Policing Group as well as the California Department of Justice.  In 1995, Detective Severino was nominated for the Parade Magazine’s “Officer of the Year Award.”

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Abstracts

Day 1 – Wednesday 5th July, 2017

Main Auditorium
Plenary Session
Authors: Fiona Gabbert, Lorraine Hope, & Gavin Oxburgh

Abstract Title:

What works in Investigative Interviewing? Mapping the literature

Abstract:  
In 2016, a group of iIIRG members were commissioned by the UK College of Policing (CoP) to produce a systematic map of the research literature on investigative interviewing, to explore ‘What works in investigative interviewing’. This was the first step in the process of ensuring that methods to elicit information and evidence are based on the best available research evidence. Three systematic maps were produced, categorising the available evidence relating to (i) interviewing adult and child victims and witnesses, (ii) interviewing suspects, and (iii) techniques and training common to interviewing victims, witnesses, and suspects. Strategies for comprehensive literature searches, inclusion and exclusion criteria, and basic and complex coding were developed and applied. Independent and dependent variables were logged a study-space matrix to examine the breadth and depth of the research-base. The outcomes will be explored, in the context of how such a resource can be of value to both academics and practitioners. This new database, as an iIIRG resource, which can be used to inform systematic reviews, meta-analyses, training guidelines, identifying gaps in the literature, etc. This project presents a real opportunity for iIIRG members to work together to maintain a valuable resource that can provide a research-base for policy and procedure surrounding investigative and intelligence interviewing.

Auditorium: Main Auditorium
Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation
Chair: Genevieve Waterhouse

Abstract Title:

Jail inmates’ opinions of police interrogations

Authors: Ray Bull & Hayley Clearly

Abstract:
Surprisingly few studies have examined police interrogation/interviewing strategies from suspects’ perspectives, yet gathering suspects’ views could well provide important insights into how best to interview. However, virtually all the few prior studies were conducted outside the USA, where legal systems and police practices probably differ. This two-part study firstly explored US jail inmates’ (N = 418) perspectives about how police should conduct interrogations/interviews. The results of a factor analysis of 26 survey items pertaining to various interrogation tactics resulted in four factors emerging – Dominance/Control, Humanity/Integrity, Empathy/Perspective-Taking, and Rapport. Respondents most strongly endorsed Rapport strategies and were unsupportive of approaches involving Dominance/Control. Results from this incarcerated sample support the notion that rapport-building strategies may be the best. The second part involves data from a sub-sample of 249 of these USA jail inmates who had recently experienced police interrogations/interviews. Fifty-three respondents said they had fully confessed (21.3%), 58 partially confessed (23.3%), and 126 denied (50.6%). Differences according to demographic factors, criminological factors, and contextual factors were assessed, and these three groups differed most for contextual factors (e.g., perceived strength of evidence, a priori confession decision).

Abstract Title:

Questioning a Suspect in the Polygraph Room – Can verbal and non verbal cues to help to detect deceptives and truthfuls?

Authors: Michel St-Yves, Élodie Larocque, & Jean-Pierre Guay

Abstract:
The aim of this study is to compare the verbal and the non-verbal answers of voluntary suspects to submit to a polygraph test in the context of an actual police investigation. Since the protocol of polygraph contains a series of standardized questions that are systematically asked to the suspects, we compared the non-verbal answers and non verbal reactions of the liars (corroborated by authenticated confessions) and truthful (corroborated by the investigation) in order to see If these two groups are distinguished on certain strategic issues such as: «Have you committed the crime for which you are here today?»; «Why should we believe you?»; «What will be the result of the polygraph test?»; «On a scale of truthfulness what percentage would you give yourself on a daily bases?»

The results of this study will validate or invalidate certain beliefs in relation to the verbal and the nonverbal answers often liked with the behavior of the deceptives and the truthful ones. Also, some strategic issues will be propose to help to do the credibility assessment of a suspect during an investigative interview.

Room 2
Skills, Training and Consultancy
Chair: Tatiana Tkacukova

Abstract Title:

Emotional bias in interpreter-assisted investigative interviews

Authors: Lauren Wilson, Dave Walsh, & Ray Bull

Abstract:
Police interpreting is emotionally evocative and may impact an interpreter’s ability to remain neutral. It remains unknown if interpreters are aware of changes in their emotional state during such legal interpreting or whether they are equipped to handle the situation if their emotional state is compromised. In the present study, over 100 interpreters and police investigators completed a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire examined participants’ perceptions of the role of the interpreter and, to our knowledge, is the first of its kind to examine the perceived impact of emotional state during interpreter-assisted investigative interviews. Our interim findings indicate that, while over 50% of interpreters felt that they had been affected emotionally during an investigative interview, only 18% of them indicated they would request a break in the interview if they felt emotional. We have also found that while the majority of interpreters believe they are sufficiently prepared to interpret for an array of serious and violent crimes, less than 40% report undertaking any training for police or legal interpreting. The preliminary results indicate that while interpreters recognize that they are emotionally affected by interpreting, they infrequently do anything about it. The impacts for practitioners are discussed, as well as follow-up research.

Abstract Title:

Factors impacting on the positive transfer of investigative interviewing skills from the training environment to the police workplace: A case study.

Authors: David Mount

Abstract:
This presentation summarizes findings from the second phase of my PhD research in which I examine the issue of transfer of acquired knowledge and skills from the training environment to the police workplace. During this phase I sought to better understand the ‘transfer problem’ as it applies to investigative interviewing for the Queensland Police Service (QPS). Through forty semi-structured interviews conducted with QPS officers (both uniformed and plain clothes), I sought the views, perceptions and opinions of those who had undertaken Level 1 and / or Level 2 investigative interviewing training and are now conducting interviews with suspects, witnesses or victims in the police workplace.
In overview, I found that there are both causal factors for ineffective transfer (poor trainee motivation, mismatch between skills taught and required on the job, non-consolidation of knowledge and skills etc) and consequential factors that limit effective application of acquired skills (limited opportunities to practice, ineffective supervisory / feedback regimes, limited linkages between professional skill development and remuneration / career progression). These causal and consequential factors, when combined, can have a distinctly negative impact on the possibility of successful transfer of knowledge and skills from the training environment to operational application in the police workplace. These findings are not, I contend, unique to the QPS and have broad applicability across jurisdictions.

Abstract Title:

How might crime-scripts be used to support the effectiveness of investigative interviews?

Authors: Steve Warren, Gavin Oxburgh, Pam Briggs, David Wall

Abstract:
Crime scripts are becoming an increasingly popular method for understanding crime by turning a crime from a static event into a process, whereby every phase of the crime is scripted. It is based on the work into cognitive scripts and rational choice theory.

With the exponential growth of cyber-crime, and more specifically cloud-crime, policing agencies are struggling with the amount of reported cyber-crime and how best to investigate and conduct subsequent interviews with victims, witnesses and suspects. This paper argues that crime scripts are the most effective way forward in terms of helping understand the behaviour of the criminal during the crime itself. They act as a common language between different stakeholders, focusing attention and resources on the key phases of a crime. They also importantly shine a light on the psychological element of a crime over the more technical cyber-related elements. More importantly, and in part because of this psychological element, crime scripts might have potential in helping investigators during investigative interviews.

A crime script can act as a framework in which to conduct an interview, it can also potentially facilitate the effectiveness of the PEACE model through a number of ways: (i) preparing and planning for the interview using the crime script, (ii) better engaging and establishing rapport, (iii) being more methodical due to an established and robust crime script, (iv) having a consistent performance due to the crime script’s consistent framework. This talk will look to discuss these, and other, potential benefits with practitioners to better understand ways to improve investigative interviews.

Room 3
Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Kristjan Kask

Abstract Title:

Interviewing the reluctant, intimidated, and hostile

Authors: Mick Confrey

Abstract:
For a decade between 1989 and 2009, shootings between rival drugs gangs were far too common on the streets of Greater Manchester, England, leading to the popular press relating to the area as “Gunchester”. In one five year period alone 27 people where shot dead and 250 others wounded. All this, in a country with some of the strictest firearms controls in the world, in an area populated by 2.5 million residents, policed by around 7000 police officers, who, with the exclusion of specialists firearms units, patrol the streets unarmed.
The Greater Manchester Police (GMP) were under considerable pressure to reduce the instances of gang related murder and firearms misuse.
The presentation will show how the GMP Major Incident Team’s Advanced Interviewing Specialists, led by Specialist Investigative Interview Advisers played their part in the overall reduction of gun crime by 89%. Their part was played by cutting edge interviewing skills, creating rapport in engaging with and obtaining testimony and intelligence from hostile and intimidated witnesses caught up in the gang lifestyle and gathering evidence and intelligence during interviews with suspects who thought that were part of an untouchable group operating above the law.

Abstract Title:

“I can’t recall, No really I honestly can’t recall” The use of Cognitive Interviewing to address a question of fitness that instead became a conviction of murder

Authors: Gary Keith Banks, Peiling Kong

Abstract:
Research indicates that as many as 20 to 30% of individuals who commit violent crimes report amnesia for their offences. Multiple explanations have been postulated ranging from organic amnesia attributable to hypoglycaemic events, intoxication with substances, and brain injuries. Dissociative amnesia suggests that emotional arousal at the time of offence limits retrieval of memories. A third option is failure of meta-memory where offenders believe they are amnesic. And finally there is malingered amnesia where offenders seek to minimise culpability for the offence.
In a matter where the defendant evidenced prolonged manic behaviour with psychotic features, claimed amnesic upon arrest, and considered unfit to be interviewed, was referred for a fitness evaluation including memory assessment.
Neuropsychological measures including cognitive function, memory, and validity testing were administered. Cognitive Interview was utilised, focusing on varied recollection and reverse order retrieval.
Using reverse retrieval and ignoring claims of amnesia, the offender produced a cohesive narrative of the offence, which not only confirmed fitness for trial, but produced an admission. This case study reviews the assessment process, including steps to bypass resistance. Recommendations are made regarding the combination of neuropsychological measures with the cognitive interview to more effectively evaluate claims of amnesia in violent offences.

Main Auditorium
Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation
Chair: Mick Confrey

Abstract Title:

Accusatorial and Information-Gathering Interview and Interrogation Methods: A Multi-Country Comparison

Author: Allison Redlich, Christopher Kelly, & Jeanee Miller

Abstract:
For the proposed presentation, we empirically evaluate the degree to which contemporary interrogation and interviewing practices vary among practitioners from countries with divergent approaches to questioning suspects. Although researchers have examined the interviewing and interrogation practices of numerous countries (e.g., Kassin et al. 2007; Walsh & Milne, 2008; Wachi et al., 2014), to our knowledge, none have compared approaches across countries. Using a consistent survey instrument, we directly compare and contrast the self-reported use and perceived effectiveness of deception detection and suspect interviewing techniques. To compare, we analyzed interrogators from the United States (n = 62), Canada (n = 83), and a third group (n = 40) which included interviewers from five European countries, Australia and New Zealand (EANZ). These seven countries have all adopted PEACE or similar information gathering methods. Our findings, perhaps unsurprisingly but nevertheless empirically, demonstrate that American, and often Canadian, interviewers utilize more confrontational/accusatorial approaches than those in the EANZ group. Further, Americans and Canadians report using more anxiety-based cues to deception detection than the EANZ sample who reported using more cognitive-based cues. These findings have direct relevance for the researchers and practitioners involved in the international investigative interviewing research group.

Abstract Title:

Police interview transcripts in U.S. internal investigations: fit for purpose?

Authors: Collins Kane, & Kate Haworth

Abstract:
This project analysed the accuracy of interview transcripts used in internal police misconduct investigations. The main researcher is an investigator in a U.S. Police Internal Affairs Bureau. Agency transcripts and corresponding audio recordings were collected from two U.S. law enforcement agencies, to determine whether the transcripts are adequate representations of the speech events they purport to portray. Grounded in Conversation Analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis, the analysis focused on three linguistic features: overlapping speech, pauses, and punctuation. It considered their impact on the meaning conveyed, and whether the transcripts offered sufficient transparency for agencies investigating their own employees.
This has particular significance since most internal investigations are reduced entirely to writing, with decisions based solely on such documents. Additionally, many citizen complaints about officer conduct come down to one person’s word against another’s, with little evidence beyond each side’s version of events when interviewed.
The transcripts were found not to be adequate in these respects, containing misrepresentation and inconsistency. Transcription was found to add a layer of interpretation which is not visible or accessible to readers, leaving agencies open to accusations of bias. However, only minor changes in transcription practice could significantly improve their evidential quality and integrity.

Abstract Title:

Coming of age: A comparative analysis of police interview discourse in interviews with 17 and 18-year-old suspects in England

Author: Annie Heini

Abstract:
English law sees a line between children and adults, i.e. between 17- and 18-year- olds. This division means different police guidelines for suspect interviews with both age groups. Persons up to 17 are entitled to special measures; when they turn 18, these measures cease. This overnight change in treatment can have detrimental effects on 18-year-olds; however, special measures intended for children can also be deemed inappropriate for 17-year-old interviewees.
This paper presents preliminary findings of my PhD research, which investigates the discourse of interviews with 17- and 18-year-old suspects. Interviews are preponderantly linguistic events and it is by examining discursive features that we uncover exactly how the age-line affects the interaction. The research question of how age-specific police guidance influences language is answered by analysing data from either side of this legal divide using qualitative approaches based on Conversation Analysis. Specifically, conversational features including turn-taking, self-corrections and back-channelling are examined.
My research makes clear the arbitrary nature of the line between childhood and adulthood, and shows how this affects interview discourse. Linguistic research into this age-line has never been conducted, and the findings identify the most salient issues, resulting in implications for practice and building a solid foundation for future research.

Abstract Title:

How the combination of camera angles and interview techniques affects on jury’s fact-finding; a research based on the experimental data

Author: Naoko Yamada-Furuta, Yuko Yamasaki, & Makoto Ibusuki

Abstract:
We held full sized mock trials (eg Initial Proceedings, Chief/Cross Examination of three witnesses, Showing 30 minutes DVD of confession video-recorded interview, Accused Chief/Cross Questioning, Deliberation, and Sentencing) to figure out how the combination of camera angles (Suspect Focus, Equal Focus) and interview techniques (Reid techniques, PEACE Model) affects on jury’s fact-findings at the same time. The data of our experiment showed that (1) jury evaluated confession in interview using PEACE Model as significantly higher both in voluntariness and in the ratio of guilty verdicts, (2) jury evaluated confession in video-recorded interview with Suspect Focus as significantly higher in voluntariness, and (3) jury’s bias due to the camera angle of the interview video could not be corrected even though they had the deliberation with judges. These results above are important because they suggest that the defect of the frame of interviewing process such as camera angles and interview techniques cannot be corrected by judicial process. We strongly recommend that suspects’ interviews should be done with Equal Focus as a camera angle and PEACE Model as an interview technique at least for the purpose of proper fact-findings and fair trial.

Room 2
Skills, Training and Consultancy
Chair: Gary Pankhurst

Abstract Title:

Questioning, police manuals and quantisation.

Authors: Marilena Kyriakidou

Abstract:
Researchers and practitioners disagree between them and amongst their selves on how to define forensic utterances (interviewers’ and interviewee’s utterances). Police manuals (like ABE, Cognitive Interview, CSAIP, NET, NICHD, PEACE, RATAC, Reid Technique) offer different definitions and guidelines on forensic utterances. Such disagreements complicate communication in research and practices. An on-going study aims to offer a common language to help communication. To do so, a method from natural sciences (called quantisation) was modified in psychology. Quantisation was applied (so far) to 77 manuscripts on forensic interviewing. Quantisation breaks definitions of forensic utterances, into their same smallest components, the psy-codes. Disagreements and regulations on how to use psy-codes are described as psy-laws. Psy-codes and psy-laws were then placed on a table. As a result, each police manual and definition is represented on the table with different combinations of psy-codes. Researchers and practitioners can use the table to express forensic utterances without changing the way they choose to define utterances. The table can be a common language in forensic interviewing just like the Periodic Table is for chemistry.

Abstract Title:

The Use of Interpreters in Investigative Interviews: A survey of practitioners

Authors: Gavin Oxburgh, Tyson Amurun, & Dave Walsh

Abstract:
Despite increases in research concerning investigative interviewing, little is still known concerning such interviews where an interpreter is required. The present study broke new ground by examining the beliefs of both investigators and interpreters. Using self-administered questionnaires, completed by 66 investigators and 40 interpreters, we asked what were the perceived challenges which both interpreters and investigators encounter when gathering information in interviews, including issues of planning, rapport and managing cognitive load. We found no unanimity as to whether interpreters should be involved in interview planning. Neither was there any agreement as to how to gather accounts from interviewees via interpreters, with interruption or disruption. Nor was there any single consensus as to how accurate interviewers believed interviewers undertook their interpretations (although it remains unknown how they formed such conclusions!). However, there was greater unanimity among all survey respondents concerning the techniques required to build rapport (found in prior research to be an important constituent of successful investigative interviews). Given the amount of disagreement between those who completed the survey and the scarcity of research that exists in regard to these matters, suggestions are made to enable identification of best practice and for future research.

Abstract Title:

Cognition in Context: Investigating the impact of cognitive style on persuasion using synthetic realities

Authors: Claire Tranter, & Coral Dando

Abstract:
Gathering information from others is a fundamental goal for those concerned with investigating crime and protecting national and international security. Information and communication technologies allow people to mask their real identities, supporting anonymous communication; thus, raising significant challenges for investigators when monitoring and managing conversations in virtual environments (VE). To date, the psychological literature concerning how to maximise information-gain in VEs for real-world interviewing purposes is sparse, and as such this aspect of social cognition is not well understood. Here, we introduce an overview of a novel programme which seeks to enhance understanding of communication in VEs, by manipulating gender and cognitive ability, for maximising information gain. Our novel immersive gaming approach to interviewing will support new theoretical and applied understandings of how judgments are formed and modified in response to advocacy to increase information gain will be discussed.

Room 3
Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: William Webster

Abstract Title:

Suggestibility or suggestibilities? Impact on memory.

Authors: Mélany Payoux, & Nadège Verrier

Abstract:
Suggestibility is a phenomenon at the heart of witness issues for over 30 years. Both complex and multidimensional, it was the subject of many studies that have, for example, demonstrated that an individual can immediately accept false information that have been suggested to him and these suggestions can then alter his memory. Nevertheless, literature always uses the “generic” term: suggestibility; while it is actually possible to distinguish different types. This article proposes a theoretical perspective on the concepts of immediate suggestibility, delayed suggestibility, interrogative suggestibility, misinformation effect and immediate misinformation acceptance. The aim is to provide assistance to francophone practitioners and researchers who, in their practice, may be faced with the phenomenon of suggestibility and therefore individuals’ vulnerability.

Abstract Title:

The Structured Interview Protocol: a research-based PEACE-compliant investigative interviewing training programme.

Authors: Fiona Gabbert, Lorraine Hope, David La Rooy, Ashleigh McGregor, Rebecca Milne, Gavin Oxburgh, & Tom Ellis

Abstract:
The training and practice of investigative interviewing should be informed by the best available research evidence. In particular, there is a need for research-based investigative interview techniques that are successful not only in being simple to learn and to administer, but that are also efficient and effective. In response the ‘Structured Interview Protocol’ (SIP) training programme has been developed and tested in a randomised controlled trial. The protocol, which is consistent with the PEACE model of investigative interviewing, draws upon relevant memory theory and principles of memory, current psychological theory on the strategic control of memory reporting, and psychological developments in investigative interviewing research. Based upon this, the SIP training advises on skills and techniques to accomplish different aspects of the interview process, such as building rapport, facilitating retrieval, eliciting an account, etc. Results indicate that the SIP promotes high quality, effective interview performance via skilled use of rapid rapport techniques, enhanced ‘engage and explain’ skills, and a clear increase in appropriate question types used in a structured manner.

Abstract Title:

Investigating impact of training for frontline police officers: the PEACE-compliant ‘Structured Interview Protocol’ training.

Authors: Tatiana Tkacukova, Matt Gee, Fiona Gabbert, Gordon Wright, Lorraine Hope

Abstract:
The paper draws on the ESRC project Promoting justice: Professionalising frontline policing with an evidence-based Structured Interview Protocol awarded to Goldsmiths University, Portsmouth University, and Royal Holloway University in cooperation with the College of Policing in August 2014. The aim of the project is to raise the quality of investigative interview skills and performance of frontline uniformed officers by offering training on an evidence-based Structured Interview Protocol (SIP©). SIP is an investigative interview protocol designed to efficiently and effectively promote the conduct of ethical best practice interviews to elicit high quality evidence. The protocol, which is consistent with PEACE, draws on relevant memory theory and principles of memory, current psychological theory on the strategic control of memory reporting, and cutting-edge psychological developments in investigative interviewing research.
As part of the project, frontline police officers conducted interviews before and after they were given training on the mechanics of the SIP. Upon presenting the main principles of the SIP and the scope of training, the paper takes a corpus-based approach to comparing the turns by frontline officers in the two stages of the data collection, i.e. interviews before and after the training. As will be shown in Key Word (Scott 1997) and n-gram analyses, the two datasets show an improvement of the participants’ use of questioning turns to elicit information in compliance with aid memory retrieval techniques. For example, post-training interviews have more attestations of establishing structure, building rapport and providing positive reinforcement, as well as a more open questioning style, on the part of the interviewers. The paper explores the intersections between forensic psychology and forensic linguistics and concludes by discussing potential routes for further cooperation.

Abstract Title:

BELIEF Interviewing.

Authors: Wesley Clark

Abstract:
BELIEF Interviewing is a narrative based approach to investigative interviewing that improves interviewing strategy and builds an investigative mindset. This philosophy lends itself to legitimacy in policing.
We approach each person with BELIEF, but realize that people have the choice to tell the truth or lie. Holding these two thoughts simultaneously helps investigators be more objective. This approach reduces confirmation bias by training investigators to focus on the narrative and questioning process to obtain information, rather than look for indicators of deception to elicit a confession. In addition to the mindset shift of BELIEF Interviewing, the acronym represents the training outline and application within the field for investigative interviews with victims, witnesses, informants and suspects:
B: Build Rapport & Baseline
E: Extract Initial Account & Information L: Listen/Look Attentively
I: Identify Key Elements & Changes
E: Expand Information
F: Follow-Up
BELIEF Interviewing is in alignment with our core values of innocence until proven guilty and helps eliminate personal bias and interview contamination. It interrupts the mental scripts/schemas interviewees bring into the interview and gathers additional information which is assessed for veracity. This process allows for the implementation of tactical/strategic use of evidence, cognitive interviewing and investigative statement analysis.


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Day 2 – Thursday 6th July, 2017

Main Auditorium
Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation
Chair: Steve Clappison

Abstract Title:

Case Study and Symposium: Lessons learned from Investigative Reviews of US Homicide Interrogations

Authors: Jim Trainum, & Andy Griffiths

Abstract:
‘Interrogation plays a vital part in justice..it has also become the most controversial feature of the whole process.’ (Softley, 1980)
While this sentiment was originally expressed following a series of UK miscarriages thirty years ago, current statistics from the Innocence Project inform us that false confessions also feature in 25% of more recent US exonerations. It can be difficult for some to believe that such a high number of people can confess, and in some cases plead guilty to crimes they did not commit. But, analysis of cases shows this can and does happen. The details of these cases, and the methodology used to analyze them contain valuable lessons for investigators and academics alike, and yet access to them is rare.
This symposium brings together the analysis of two separate real life police interrogations conducted in murder cases where the interviewees confessed but later retracted. In both cases, the analysis was commissioned by defense teams as part of the appeals process, and included a focus on the accuracy and reliability of the information provided by the suspect. Permission has been granted for the cases to be presented.
Case 1 – relates to the shooting and murder of three people inside suburban Detroit home. Devontae Stanford, a fourteen-year-old with intellectual disability who lived in the neighborhood, immediately became a suspect, and confessed following several hours of unrecorded interviews. However, subsequently, a professional assassin also confessed – providing accurate details of the crime as well as one of the weapons used. Yet, Stanford remained in prison for several more years.
Case 2 – relates to the double murder of a husband and wife in their Virginia home. The police suspected the couple’s daughter and her boyfriend, Jens Soering, who fled the country but was arrested in the UK. Soering voluntarily confessed to the murders but subsequently retracted saying he did so only to protect the real offender, the daughter. Soering was convicted and remains in prison fighting his conviction today, thirty years later.
In the Stanford Case, with no recording of the interrogation, the analysis combined both conventional and non-conventional approaches, including those often adopted in root cause analysis reviews. In the Soering Case, there was no oppressive questioning or overtly coercive behaviour by the interrogators. Unusually, the suspect set out to convince his interrogators that he was solely responsible in order to divert suspicion from a second individual. The analysis, therefore, focused on the credibility of key facts offered as part of the confession, rather than any psychological tactics used by the detectives.
The presenters will demonstrate the different methodologies used in analysis of the cases and a summary of findings from both cases.

Room 2
Skills, Training and Consultancy
Chair: Nisha Baker

Abstract Title:

Police officers’ use of evidence in suspect interviews: How and Why?

Author: Gregory Phillips, Steven Longford, & Clair Nunn-Furzey

Abstract:
IN SHORT, logic based models don’t build mastery, they just avoid worst practice. So how can we build mastery in staff?
Skills-based versus Logic-based models and frameworks of Interview. This proposes a 90 minute facilitated session designed to show the shortfalls of logic-based approaches to TEACHING interview.
Most interview training is based around a model like “PEACE” which follows a logic sequence from start to finish. But, when we consider the way people learn, and the failure rates of these models to establish strong interview process within a range of organisations, perhaps it is appropriate to begin talking about moving away from a “linear model” based approach and towards the practice of Professional Inquiry.
Professional Inquiry is a term that evolved out of the research conducted by New Intelligence in Australia, examining 1,000 interviews and the success rates of the practitioners. (previously delivered to IIIRG at Geelong Australia).
The approach of Professional Inquiry is to develop the capability within investigators across 3 core capabilities simultaneously: Appropriate Research, comprehensive interview skill, critical evaluation skill, along the way, showing practitioners how things such as their ability to deal with Uncertainty are actually the things that stop them performing at the top level.
Essentially, your lowest level of ability at any of the Professional Inquiry skills anchors you to that lowest level of performance in your role as an investigator. You cannot just teach interview.
Taking a “model” based approach represents problems when trying to assess skill of participants. Are you assessing them on their adherence to the model? Or are you assessing on their ability to apply specific skill at specific times? You can follow a model and still commit worst practice.
You lowest level of ability to research and target appropriate sources of information dictate the strength of the subsequent Interview.
Your ability to understand the tools required to conduct strong interviews and the capacity to be flexible, dictates your Interview performance.
Your ability to critically evaluate information dictates your ability to effectively move from Interview into Decision Making as an investigator.
Normally, in complex interviews, it appears as though investigators are doing this all at the same time. But this is not the case. They have to switch between skills very quickly. That is the key. The ability to master the skills and switch quickly between them dictates your level of ability.

Room 3
Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Alistair Graham

Abstract Title:

Cognition in context: A comparison of eyewitness retrieval in face-to-face, remote avatar mediated, and asynchronous vocal smartphone interviews.

Author: Donna Taylor, Coral Dando, Kayleigh Gibbs, & Aleksandra Jagielka

Abstract:
Introduction
The empirical psychological eyewitness-memory literature typically concerns episodic performance in the presence of another. Face-to-face interviewing has many advantages, but also many psychological disadvantages, i) significant delays between encoding and retrieval, which are detrimental to memory performance ii) interviewer variables such as gender, age, culture, can affect retrieval performance, iii) the demand characteristics associated with a perceived imbalance of power, status and expectation can negatively impact the quality/quantity of information reported. Interviews conducted either via telephone or in virtual environments, are quicker, easier to arrange, and may mitigate some of the negative effects of face-to-face interviews.

Method
Using a between-subjects, mock witness design we investigated the efficacy of remote interviewing in two alternative contexts. Interviews were conducted remotely, either in a virtual environment communicating via avatars or using asynchronous vocal communication via a smartphone, and compared with face-to-face interviews. Following intentional encoding, sixty participants viewed a stimulus event, and following a distractor task were randomly allocated to either the face-to-face, avatar (using Oculus Rift headsets) or telephone interview condition. Interactions were digitally recorded, transcribed and then coded for memory performance.

Results
Multivariate statistical analysis of memorial performance revealed significant differences across retrieval conditions for the amount of correct, incorrect and confabulated episodic information recalled, and the type of information.

Discussion
Findings will be discussed with reference to how technological advances might be utilised for investigating crime by supporting episodic remembering.

Abstract Title:

The use and efficacy of empathy during forensic interviews with victims of rape.

Author: William Webster, Gavin Oxburgh, Dame Vicki Bruce, & Coral Dando

Abstract:
Past research has highlighted the importance of empathy during forensic interviews with victims of crime and how its use may impact on the level of engagement and cooperation from the interviewee. In addition, previous research has also highlighted the beliefs of interviewing officers on its use and perceived efficacy, however, such research has generally used self-report measures. Using a sample of 25 DVD recordings of victims of rape from a large police force in the North of England, the current study investigates the specific qualities that are present within these forensic interviews. The interviews were analysed using a specially designed coding framework to establish whether the level of training received (by the interviewing officer), the use of empathy, rapport-building and the use of appropriate questioning influenced the amount of investigation relevant information obtained. The findings and implications are discussed in full detail.

Abstract Title:

In vino veritas: Alcohol intoxicated person’s willingness to report unethical or criminal behaviour carried out by themselves or others.

Author: Angelica Hagsand, Jaqueline Evans, & Nadja Schreiber Compo

Abstract:
Witnesses and suspects are frequently intoxicated during their first interview. Alcohol impairs executive functioning (e.g. impulse control, judgement), which in turn could have negative consequences for interviewee behaviour (e.g. oversharing sensitive information). In a legal context, interviewees’ willingness to disclose either a personal transgression or someone else’s transgression is often of great importance. Participants were randomly assigned to a 3 (Beverage: alcohol vs. placebo vs. control) x 2 (Transgression type: self vs. other) between-participants design. While drinking in the bar lab, all participants witnessed the bartender taking a shot of vodka asking them not to tell anyone. Afterwards, half of the participants were asked to report if they noticed the bartender commit a transgression. The other half were asked to report a personal transgression, defined as something unethical. Data-collection is ongoing; all interviews will be scored for whether a transgression was reported, and the number of details disclosed about the transgression. Preliminary data suggest that the odds of a person who is intoxicated (alcohol), or believes that she/he is intoxicated (placebo), disclosing any type of transgression is 4.6 times higher than a sober person. Participants also seems to report more details about a personal transgression, than the bartender’s transgression.

Abstract Title:

Improving or Hindering? The Effect of Using Neutral Visual Aids in Interviewing Child Eyewitnesses.

Author: Annegrete Palu, & Kristjan Kask

Abstract:
To improve the accuracy of children’s descriptions of people and events, several visual props have been previously proposed. Still, there are discrepancies regarding the suggestiveness of these props. The current study examined whether the provision of neutral aids (a color palette, pictures of daily activities and seasons) could improve preschoolers’ accuracy of memory for color, activities and seasons; and, whether provision of neutral aids leads some children to change their interview answers. The study involved 169 6- to 7-year-old children participated in a scripted event and were interviewing a week later. Using neutral visual aids had an additive effect on the amount of information and the volume of false information in children’s statements. Children reported additional information and more false information when using neutral visual aids in response to repeated questions. Similar patterns were present when observing the effect of aids on the recall of color and activities separately. Pictures of seasons increased the accuracy of children’s reports concerning seasons. Increase in false information and the potential for a change in children’s answers implies a suggestive effect in using neutral visual aids. Thus, using visual aids in practice should be treated with care.

Main Auditorium
Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation
Chair: Ray Bull

Abstract Title:

Moving forward: Bringing about change in interrogation practice

Authors: Laure Brimbal, Maria Hartwig, Jonathan Jackson, Ben Bradford, & Emily Joseph

Abstract:
Drawing on recent work in policing and organizational psychology, this study examined factors that should promote or hinder openness to adopting evidence-based interview techniques in law enforcement investigators. Specifically, we were interested in whether investigators’ identification and internalization of their own organization’s values predicted their compliance with and commitment to organizational practices and policies. This should help instill a sense that adopting evidence-based interview techniques is the right thing for them to do. We surveyed 624 law enforcement investigators who responded to statements measuring how they perceived their organization in terms of justice, legitimacy, reward and sanctions, and their level of organizational identification. We tested whether these factors predicted organizational compliance, feelings of empowerment, and tendency toward extra-role behavior (going “above and beyond”). Findings showed that the more just investigators found their organization the more they identified with it and perceived it as legitimate. In turn, legitimacy predicted compliance, while level of identification predicted empowerment, and extra-role behavior.

Abstract Title:

Perceptions of Suspect Statements: A Comparison of Exposed Lies and Confessions.

Author: Laure Brimbal, & Angela Jones

Abstract:
This study investigated whether exposed lies obtained from an investigative interview were as effective in court as a confession from an interrogation. In two studies, mock jurors read case summaries wherein the suspect statement was manipulated: The defendant either lied or not and either confessed or not. Participants rendered a verdict and were asked about the probative value of supporting evidence. In both studies, convictions were higher when the defendant lied, confessed, or did both relative to when the defendant produced a statement without lies and without a confession. We found that perceptions of supporting evidence mediated the effect of exposed lies on culpability, but this was not the case for confessions. Both a suspect’s confession and exposed lies about evidence are sufficient to secure a conviction. Further, exposed lies might change the way jurors process case information. Our findings suggest that a defendant’s exposed lies about evidence may be as probative as a confession. Thus, eliminating the use of confession driven interrogation techniques should not result in a loss of conviction power, if replaced by investigative interviewing techniques specifically designed to uncover lies.

Room 2
Skills, Training and Consultancy
Chair: Gavin Oxburgh

Abstract Title:

Symposium – Study Space Analysis: An evaluation of concept applied to investigative interviewing.

Author: Gary Pankhurst, William Webster, Laura Oxburgh, & Gavin Oxburgh

Abstract:
As a generic concept, the Study Space Analysis (SSA) is still in its relative infancy compared to other methodologies used to review a literature-base. Malpass et al. (2008) first proposed the concept which relies on the identification of elements and sub-elements that assess a specific topic. Such elements are defined by the intersection of the levels of study attributes – independent, methodological, procedural and dependent variables used in, and across, the considered studies. These data are entered into individual matrices, then merged to form a master matrix. Examining the study space using such attributes can assist in identifying specific areas of concentration and inattention. The information elicited from a SSA benefits researchers, but also expert witnesses (in assessing the adequacy of a topic database) and public policy reform/development.
This unique symposium will provide an account of how the concept has developed since its introduction, specifically linked to investigative interviewing. The authors’ will reflect upon their own experiences of having conducted SSAs, reflecting on the practicalities of conducting, interpreting and publishing the findings, in addition to its perceived advantages and disadvantages as a concept – this will be done using examples to provide meaning to the highlighted issues. Finally, their thoughts in relation to how this concept could potentially be developed to encourage a more widespread use will be offered.
Pankhurst abstract:
The impact and complexity of sexual offences present significant challenges to investigators and an essential skill is the effective interviewing of suspects, the interview outcome can be pivotal to the overall investigation. A Study Space Analysis (SSA) was used to evaluate 22 quantitative and qualitative studies published since 2000. The major themes that emerged include a need to develop a taxonomy for sexual offenders given the heterogeneous nature of their offending. The concentration of studies looking at factors in confession outcomes highlight their continuing importance within some jurisdictions. The information gathering investigative interview is less well represented within the research base. Potential gaps within the extant literature are considered including the absence of research on the impact of mental health issues in relation to the interviewing of suspects. Future directions for research identified in this emerging and important area of research are discussed.

Webster abstract:
The investigative interviewing of rape victims is a cognitively demanding task for all concerned and one that requires extensive training, practice and a considered approach to ensure that the interaction is productive. The difficulties associated with conducting such interviews also appear to impact on the level of academic attention that this typology of research receives. This study utilises a SSA, comprising 30 published articles over a 15-year period (incl. both quantitative and qualitative research) to determine the research that has contributed to the extant literature-base relating to the interviewing of rape victims. Results indicate that the main focus of research has been on measuring police officers professional perspectives/opinions, beliefs and experiences in relation to how these could be influenced by interviewer characteristics. A notable area of inattention found was the efficacy of such interviews. Further discussion will take place regarding the findings of the SSA and the potential practical implications that these could have.

Oxburgh (L.D.) abstract:
Investigative interviewing of mentally disordered suspects is a crucial area of applied research given the increasing contact between police officers and this vulnerable group of individuals. A SSA was conducted on psychological research published internationally to identify areas within this field of research that have been well-explored or under-researched. Following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 37 papers comprising both a quantitative and qualitative nature were included. Psychological research tended to focus on areas such as the experiences and attitudes of police officers when interviewing mentally disordered suspects, as well as the identification of vulnerability of such individuals first entering police custody. In addition, the empirical base regarding false confessions was somewhat well explored. However, little psychological research investigating the police interviewing of mentally disordered suspects was found. Implications for such gaps in the literature will be discussed as well as the use of a SSA methodology as a concept in an under-developed area of research.

Room 3
Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Trond Myklebust

Abstract Title:

Working with Anti-Police Ideation in Investigative Interviews with Children and Youth

Author: Thomas Saczkowski

Abstract:
This article attempts to encourage a bridge between disciplines in critical based qualitative methodologies and the practise of investigative interviewing. An overview is provided of the current field of investigative interviewing and the currently utilized best practises. Subsequently, some areas of relevant legislation and international conventions are discussed to describe the professional practise and intensive requirements of investigative interviewers to ensure fairness, accountability, and transparency when conducting an interview. This article presents findings that anti-police sentiments have been increasing generally within the North American populace and can have an important role in interviews. As such, investigative interviewers must take into consideration how such ideologies impact the conduct and potential contamination of investigative interviews. Reflecting on case work with youth in Canada, the author presents a methodological approach expanding on the PEACE model on how investigative interviewers can effectively engage with you who hold anti police sentiments. Using theory from institutional ethnographic methodological approaches, the article provides concrete case studies and practise based learnings for investigative interviewers when working with youth.

Abstract Title:

Investigative interviews of children: The Nordic model

Author: Trond Myklebust

Abstract:
Little is known about the Barnahus model in the UK / US / Australasia. The presentation is based upon the evaluation and coming book (in press). It will explore the theory, functioning, practice and outcomes of the evaluation of the Nordic Barnahus Model. Hopefully, It will extend and develop some of the delegates knowledge and understanding of the Nordic Model compared to the “Adversarial system”.

Barnahus is an important part of the Nordic Model of investigative interviews of children. As clearly demonstrated in the evaluation, researchers and practitioners needs to work together in the development and professionalism of handling Children`s testimonies.
Starting with a short presentation of the “Adversarial system” and “Nordic model” in the way children’s testimonies are obtained, the presentation introduces briefly the background and introduction of the structured models used in today’s interviews of children. Despite the similarities within the Barnahus- and Nordic model, there are differences in who conducts the interviews, the level of training and procedures. Each of the Nordic countries are presented with the procedures and how the interviewers are trained in their important task of interviewing children.

Main Auditorium
Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation
Chair: Kate Haworth

Abstract Title:

Case Study of a Sexual Assault: Investigative Strategy, Language & Truth.

Author: Wesley Clark

Abstract:
According to FBI statistics, there were over 173,000 victims of sexual assault within the United States in 2013. The FBI also cites the false accusation rate of sexual assaults to be around 8%. This represents a very real problem for law enforcement investigators on handling sensitive, complex investigation and getting it right. With this case study, the victim reported to the police that she was sexually assaulted at a hotel by a man she briefly met while dining at the hotel restaurant. Witness information and physical evidence corroborated the victim’s account, and the criminal investigation identified the suspect, who previously provided the victim with a false name and then left the hotel shortly after the incident. The interviewing and investigative strategy, along with the language used by both the victim and the suspect within written statements and during interviews, provided insight into what truly happened, helped to focus the interviews and led the investigators to the truth. This presentation will reveal what the truth was and how investigators arrived there.

Room 2
Skills, Training and Consultancy
Chair: Lorraine Hope

Abstract Title:

A behaviourally informed interview model for fraud and corruption investigations

Authors: Tom Willems

Abstract:
Behavioural sciences in general and cognitive and social psychology in particular have produced a body of research demonstrating that human-decision making is not merely the result of rational choices. Our judgments were found to be based on mental models, depend on our social environment and are affected by ‘mental shortcuts’, many of which occur automatically.
Whereas the understanding of these decision patterns is common ground for scientific research and are increasingly relevant and integrated in policy-making and intelligence, its use in investigations has not been object of systematic study. This can be found surprising as understanding patterns in decision-making would seem relevant for all actors in the investigative field.
This is in particular the case in regard to (suspect) interviews, involving a competitive exchange of information, the leveraging of various forms of power and a continuum of choices and decision- making between pursuing interests or positions. In this cognitively demanding setting of influencing, persuasion and negotiation, understanding the different ways how information is processed and choices are made by the interviewee can be decisive factors for an effective interview.
This paper identified some of the cognitive and social effects that seem most relevant for interviewing and presents some practical examples of how they could be transposed to a suspect interview. Priming effects, the framing of questions, the need for consistency and social proof seem to be among the most adequate effects.
In addition to the need of testing the effectiveness and efficiency of such behaviourally informed interviewing, further study should also address possible ethical concerns it raises.

Abstract Title:

Investigative interviews of children in Estonia between 2004 and 2014

Author: Francesco Pompedda, Jan Antfolk & Pekka Santtila

Abstract:
Training in investigative interviews of alleged CSA cases is an important topic in forensic psychology and recent studies showed how traditional training fails to improve interview quality (Johnson et al., 2015). We propose a flexible and cost-effective training tool that uses simulated investigative interviews with avatars in order to give plenty of possibilities to interviewers to practice in a protected environment and receive detailed feedback. Previous studies have shown that our tool improved the quality of investigative interviews, measured as proportion of recommended questions, number of correct and wrong details and percentage of correct conclusions (Pompedda, Zappalà & Santtila, 2015; Pompedda, Krause, Antfolk, Zappalà & Santtila, 2017). The subsequent step was to test the effects of this training in interviews with real children. Thirty-eight psychologists were randomly divided into control and feedback groups, each of them performed six interviews with avatars and two interviews with children (aged 4-7) that had witnessed a mock event. The results showed that the training effect acquired in the interviews with avatar transferred to interviews with real children. Future implications and directions will be discussed.

Room 3
Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Leslie Cuthbert

Abstract Title:

The impact of Autism Spectrum Disorders on event memory, accuracy and suggestibility.

Authors: Telma Sousa Almeida, & Michael E. Lamb

Abstract:
Despite the widespread knowledge that children with developmental disorders such as those with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are more likely to be abused than children without disabilities, research about their eyewitness capabilities is still scarce. Furthermore, there is not yet an established interview protocol that addresses the deficits in reciprocal social interaction and communication and the specific memory impairments inherent to children with ASD. This research aims to overcome this shortcoming by examining their ability to give reliable accounts of personally experienced events, considering the effects of age, delay, type of disability and types of questions used. Additionally, we are developing a version of the “NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol” to be used with children with ASD. A sample of 62 children (6-16 years old) with High Functioning ASD (N=28) and without disabilities (N=34) were questioned about their participation in a set of activities after a delay of 2 week and again after a delay of 2 months, using the revised version of the NICHD Protocol. We expect that older participants will recall more information; that HFASD will show impoverished free recall and will recall more and more accurate details when specific (directive) questions are used.

Abstract Title:

Mock-Juror Reactions to Multiple Interview Presentation Styles and Rapport-Building

Authors: Genevieve Waterhouse, Rachel Wilcock, Anne Ridley, & Ray Bull

Abstract:
Child victims/witnesses in the UK Criminal Justice System are often interviewed more than once about the event that they experienced (e.g., Plotnikoff & Woolfson, 2001). These interviews should include a rapport-building phase in which non-substantive subjects are discussed (Ministry of Justice, 2011). According to special measures, these interviews can be shown in court as part of the child’s evidence-in-chief, but the research examining the effect of these interview techniques on mock-jurors’ perceptions is scarce. The current study examined 103 mock-jurors’ perceptions of a child interview. Participants viewed two interviews of the same mock-witness that had been manipulated to include or exclude the rapport-building phase, and to appear to present one interview with a ten minute break or two interviews separated by one week. Results showed the manipulations had no effect on perceptions of the interview or on verdicts. A significant difference was found, however, for mock-jurors’ perceptions of the child witness. Viewing the rapport-building section and believing they were watching only one interview was associated with more negative perceptions. Perceptions of the child’s testimony appear, therefore, to be being affected by extra-legal factors. The implications for practice and the next steps for research will be discussed.

Abstract Title:

The Self-Administered Witness Interview Tool (SAW-IT): Enhancing witness recall of adverse industrial events.

Authors: Carla MacLean, Lorraine Hope, & Fiona Gabbert

Abstract:
Given the often crucial role of witness evidence in OHS investigation, statements should be obtained as soon as possible after an incident using best practice methods. This is not always practicable due to demands on investigator resources. The present research systematically tested the efficacy of the Self-Administered Witness Interview Tool (SAW-ITTM), an adapted version of the Self-Administered Interview (SAI©) designed to elicit comprehensive information from witnesses to industrial events. The present study also examined whether completing the SAW-ITTM’s mitigated the effect of schematic processing on witness recall. Results indicate that the SAW-ITTM elicited significantly more accurate information about all features of the target incident, as well as more precise information than a traditional industry statement form. Completing a SAW-ITTM did not mitigate the biasing effects of contextual information about a worker’s safety history, delivered post-event. These results confirm that witnesses should be shielded from post-event information prior to reporting and showed empirically that the SAW-ITTM is a simple intervention that can enhance the quantity and quality of witness reports in OHS investigation. Theoretical and practical applications of the results will be discussed including the perspective of practitioners currently using the SAW-ITTM in OHS investigation.


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Day 3 – Friday 7th July, 2017

Main Auditorium
Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation
Chair: William Webster

Abstract Title:

Exploration of Empathy Employment in Investigative Interviews: International Police Perspectives from 10 Countries.

Authors: Bianca Baker, Dave Walsh, & Ray Bull

Abstract:
Growing evidence exists suggesting that empathy may well play a major role in establishing and maintaining rapport, particularly between investigators and suspects in police interviews. Research has shown the benefits of rapport to include more investigative relevant information being provided by suspects. However, with regard to empathy there are as yet no consistent definitions of the term and almost no research on operationalizing and implementing empathy in investigations.
Furthermore, interviewers may experience challenges when trying to display empathy when conducting interviews with suspected sex offenders. The present study examined police understanding of empathy and how interviewers apply empathy (among other skills) during investigative interviews.
Over 275 police responsible for investigating crimes of a sexual nature (in ten countries) completed an online questionnaire. Results indicated that although across countries the definitions of empathy were similar, the investigators differed regarding their employment of empathy, as well as of other skills.

Room 2
Skills, Training and Consultancy
Chair: Nisha Baker

Abstract Title:

Intelligence-gathering approaches for more and less capable sources: A Comparison of the Scharff technique with accusatory and direct interview techniques.

Authors: Sarah Shaffer, Kureva Matuku, & Jacqueline Evans

Abstract:
The current study examines the effectiveness of three interrogation strategies: Direct Questioning, an Accusatorial Approach, and the Scharff Technique. The Scharff Technique is aimed at elicitation – i.e., obtaining new details without the source’s awareness. Previous research has consistently found the Scharff Technique to be superior to Direct Questioning at elicitation, likely because it renders counter-interrogation strategies ineffective. The utility of the Scharff Technique in relation to other common methods (e.g., the Accusatorial approach, used by police in the U.S.) is unknown. In the current study the amount of information held by sources is manipulated in order to simulate sources who are capable of providing information, and those who have very little information to offer, similar to a manipulation of suspect culpability in studies focusing on confession rates. Data collection is currently underway. We hypothesize that the Accusatorial Approach and the Scharff Technique will yield a) more details overall and b) a greater number of lies (especially for less capable sources), than the Direct Approach. However, the Scharff Technique is expected to outperform the other approaches on measures relevant to elicitation (e.g., awareness of interviewer’s objectives). Implications for interviewing and elicitation in both intelligence-gathering and interrogative settings will be discussed.

Abstract Title:

Using innovative information elicitation formats to elicit complex and detailed intelligence

Authors: Lorraine Hope, Feni Kontogianni, Kristoffer Geyer & Fiona Gabbert

Abstract:
Eliciting accurate and reliable information in intelligence gathering contexts is a challenge. This challenge is exacerbated by the fact that the interviewee may have several critical experiences to report but may not be in a position to discriminate which experiences are of interest to the interviewer and which are not. Furthermore, information may have been gained over an extended period of time – often years. Such information may be difficult to recall in the absence of supportive or assistive retrieval cues. For instance, standard question-answer interview approaches fail to provide the interviewee with sufficient retrieval support to facilitate a comprehensive sweep of (potentially) available memory content. One way to address this problem is to provide the interviewee with optimal retrieval support, through the use of high quality retrieval strategies and appropriate cueing with the aim of eliciting as much information as possible. This presentation will introduce new research focused on the testing and development of innovative theoretically-informed formats for eliciting intelligence information, including information about (i) event sequences (ii) conversations and (iii) the composition of networks and groups. We will also explore the potential for the use of assistive technology in the elicitation of information – particularly about networks and groups.

Room 3
Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Gordon Wright

Abstract Title:

Pre-recorded police interviews of vulnerable witnesses as evidence-in-chief: A review of their features and uses at trial.

Authors: Jane Goodman-Delahunty, Natalie Martschuk, Martine Powell, & Nina Westera

Abstract:
In many jurisdictions, in lieu of live testimony in court, the evidence-in-chief of vulnerable witnesses is given via pre-recorded videotape. Few formal evaluations have been conducted of these procedural innovations. This paper describes results of this practice in Australian courts, drawing on a sample of 72 video-recorded police interviews with child sexual assault complainants. These videotapes were systematically analysed in terms of the quality of the recording (e.g., audio clarity, image clarity, camera perspective) and nonverbal features of the speakers (e.g., posture, hand gestures, facial expressions, tone, eye contact). Wide disparities were noted in the image and audio quality. Many recordings failed to capture images adequate for an assessment of the complainant’s credibility. The interviewers were visible in only 56% of the video-recordings. Nonverbal analyses revealed a variety of facial expressions of the complainants (43.3% neutral, 26.9% negative, 20.8% changing emotions, 7.5% positive emotions) and posture change (43.1% restless, 33.3% barred, 33.3% frozen). Examples of subsequent discussions in court about this evidence reflected concerns raised in terms of technological aspects, the structure and interview procedures. A proposed set of international video-technology standards and protocols is recommended.

Abstract Title:

The applicability of cognitive interview instructions via telephone-based interviews.

Authors: Kazuki Hirama, Kaeko Yokota, Taeko Wachi, Yusuke Otsuka, & Kazumi Wantanabe

Abstract:
Cognitive Interview (CI) instructions increase the quantity of information from cooperative witnesses and victims and increase resistance to misleading questions (Geiselman, 1986). Telephone-based interview methods could increase the validity of responses by reducing the embarrassment involved in responding to emotionally or socially loaded questions in face-to-face interviews (Fenig et al., 1993). Based on this aforementioned research, the aim of this study was to examine whether CI instructions would reduce suggestibility to misleading questions through telephone-based interview methods. In this study, 170 adult participants were randomly assigned to 4 conditions (“context reinstatement,” “report everything,” “mixed (modified CI),” or “control”). Participants viewed a silent video clip showing three people reading a booklet on the grass. Three days later, participants were asked to recall what they saw in the video clip and answer 8 misleading questions. Generalized linear model analyses revealed that participants in the “report everything” group had significantly fewer misleading responses than those in the control group (OR = 0.70, p = .021, 95% CI [0.51, 0.95]). This finding suggests that one can reduce suggestibility in participants who are given CI instructions without face-to-face interviews. This demonstrates the applicability of telephone-based cognitive interviews in police practice.

Main Auditorium
Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation
Chair: Stephen Clappison

Abstract Title:

What they do and what they should do: The Appropriate Adult intervention in vulnerable suspect interviews.

Authors: Laura Farrugia, & Fiona Gabbert

Abstract:
In England and Wales, there are various safeguards in place to assist with vulnerable victims, witnesses and suspects. The role of the Appropriate Adult is a vital safeguard during vulnerable suspect police interviews as championed by the Police and Criminal Evidence Act (1984). Whilst Appropriate Adults are informed that they are not present during police interviews to merely act as an observer, previous research has suggested that Appropriate Adults often do not contribute when necessary and are often passive in their roles. Approximately 40 vulnerable adult suspect police interviews were analysed using a specially developed coding framework to explore the efficacy of the Appropriate Adult, including occasions when they do intervene and any missed opportunities. Initial findings suggest that Appropriate Adults do not contribute effectively during the interview and rarely intervene when there are opportunities to do so. A full analysis of the results and discussion will take place, including implications for current practice.

Room 2
Skills, Training and Consultancy
Chair: Gary Pankhurst

Abstract Title:

The use of Virtual Reality in offender research: implications for investigative interviewing.

Authors: Claire Nee, Jean-Louis Van Gelder, Amy Meenaghan, Marco Otte, & Zarah Vernham

Abstract:
Virtual reality has recently been introduced for studying offenders’ thoughts, emotions and behaviour on the journey to crime and at the scene of the crime. In the first significant study using this innovative technology, an unexpected benefit of using this method was the significant level of disclosure seen in the offender participants while undertaking a ‘virtual burglary’ within a simulated residential neighbourhood. Verbalisations about their route choices through the neighbourhood, how they choose targets and their method and decision-making during the burglary were significantly enhanced compared to interview alone. This paper will give an overview of the qualitative and quantitative findings of the study and then explore how this method might be used to significantly support and inform investigative interviewing for a variety of criminal behaviours. The method is likely to result in better intelligence, better clear-up rates and ultimately better-informed crime prevention strategies.

Room 3
Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Bianca Baker

Abstract Title:

The What Works Project

Authors: Erik Phillips, & Christian Meissner

Abstract:
Systematic evaluation procedures have been developed within the US government in the fields of education (What Works Clearinghouse) and criminal justice (Crime Solutions) that offer an evidence-based perspective on ‘what works.’ Other organizations, such as Cochrane and Campbell, have also established evidence-based policy evaluation processes that address practices in health care, economic development, and social welfare. The High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG) has developed a What Works evaluation process that will begin, for the first time, to systematically evaluate the scientific evidence supporting approaches to interviewing, interrogation, and credibility assessment. Reviews of single studies and prior meta-analytic assessments of a method will lead to an overall Evaluation Report, detailing the quality of the available research and an objective assessment of the effectiveness of the method. A website has been developed to disseminate the publications and findings of this research program, and to share What Works reports with trainers, practitioners, policymakers, and academics (http://interrogationscience.org). Researchers have initiated two reviews that will follow this process—one that examines the effectiveness of the Cognitive Interview for eliciting information, and a second that evaluates claims made by Neurolinguistic Programming with respect to assessments of credibility. Three more reviews are scheduled for completion within this fiscal year.

Main Auditorium
Suspect Interviewing and Interrogation
Chair: Stephen Clappison

Abstract Title:

Imminent Threat Interviewing: Findings from Field Studies and Training Exercises.

Authors: Laurence Alison & Emily Alison

Abstract:
Talk One: Observing Rapport Based Interpersonal Techniques (ORBIT) in Imminent Threat Interviews.
Talk Two: ORBIT Case Studies on Field Interrogations with High Value Detainees.
Talk Three: ORBIT Training Across the National Counter Terrorism Cadre: Challenges in Accelerating Expertise.

This symposium will include 3 talks regarding urgent / safety / imminent threat interviewing. The first will reflect on the ORBIT (Observing Rapport Based Interpersonal Techniques) model’s (Alison and Alison, 2017) value in understanding what works (and why) in imminent threat interviews. ORBIT is comprised of theoretical models drawn from interpersonal relating (Leary, 1957, Birtchnell, 1992) and motivational interviewing (Miller and Rollnick, 1992). ORBIT has synthesised these into a coherent model of rapport based interrogation and applied it to the examination of over 1,200 hours of footage of police counter terrorism interviews in the UK.
Talk two will discuss the application of these models against case studies drawn from operational field settings (though retaining the anonymity of both the suspects and all aspects pertaining to victims).
Talk three will discuss the application of the ORBIT model to training and will discuss the UK’s national counter terrorism training course since its inception in 2012. This talk will explore the challenges of imminent threat interviews from a training perspective and highlight the efficacy of deliberate practise in improving performance.

Room 2
Skills, Training and Consultancy
Chair: Gary Pankhurst

Abstract Title:

Language and Communication Training for Police Interviewers: Applying Linguistics to Professional Practice.

Authors: Kate Haworth, & Nicci MacLeod

Abstract:
This poster reports on a project to develop and deliver training for police interviewers on language and communication. With a firm grounding in linguistic theory, including areas of pragmatics, conversation analysis, discourse analysis and interactional sociolinguistics, these novel sessions have received highly positive feedback from police interview trainers and trainees alike.
Areas covered include language, identity and ‘policespeak'; footing and the display of knowledge; reported speech; the effect of the non-present overhearing audiences; the distinction between linguistic form and pragmatic function; accommodation theory and interviewer influence; and the functions of discourse markers.
A key part of the project was to work alongside practitioners in developing the training materials, to ensure practical relevance. Questionnaires and focus groups at the end of each session fed directly back into the materials, and allowed for the evaluation of training needs against current linguistic research findings, including the authors’ own research into the discourse of police interviews with witnesses and suspects. It is intended that this project will form the pilot for further integration of linguistics into UK police interviewer training.
The project was funded by the British Association for Applied Linguistics. Collaborating forces were Greater Manchester Police, Sussex Police, and South Yorkshire Police.

Abstract Title:

Contextualising body cameras’ impact on domestic violence: A simple case of recording first encounters?

Authors: Tom Ellis

Abstract:
Body cameras have been introduced into policing very rapidly. One of the major expectations was that they would improve police effectiveness in dealing with domestic abuse. However, most frontline officers are not trained in investigative interviewing, while their follow up investigative team colleagues are. This affects patrol officers’ ability to ensure they record the best level of evidence on first encounter, which can affect the subsequent investigations and case outcomes. Current recording processes have not been designed to combine measurements of camera metrics, quality of first account performance and case progression and outcome. This study is therefore based on analysis of bespoke data for 500 cases to show the comparative success rates for domestic abuse cases where a) cameras were not used, b) where cameras were used but first account interviewing was poor, and c) where first account interviewing was used well. The implications for training for front line officers in combining structured interview protocols with body camera use are then discussed.

Room 3
Witness Interviewing and Suggestibility
Chair: Bianca Baker

Abstract Title:

The effect of mood and the Liverpool Interview Protocol (LIP) on memory accuracy and confidence

Authors: Jacqueline Wheatcroft, Graham Wagstaff, Alice Cadogan, & Adela Sobrepera

Abstract:
The Liverpool Interview Protocol (LIP) is a memory facilitation tool shown to enhance memory and reduce error rates. However, research to date has not examined mood and anxiety relative to LIP. 120 participants observed a crime stimulus and were randomly allocated to emotional or neutral mood inducement. Participants were administered the complete LIP, context reinstatement, focused meditation plus eye closure or no facilitation. All participants provided free recall and cued recall information. Trait and state anxiety was also recorded. The LIP produced superior memory accuracy for free recall whilst focused mediation plus eye closure was most effective for cued recall. Error rates increased following context reinstatement when participants were emotionally induced. Emotional inducement also resulted in higher levels of reported confidence. Low trait anxiety scores were significantly related to increased accuracy of cued perpetrator items and high trait anxiety scorers were more likely to report higher confidence ratings for cued victim items. Findings have important implications for investigation. It is necessary that investigators are able to identify the most appropriate memory facilitation techniques for witnesses to enhance accurate recall and reduce errors. The LIP fares well to emotional mood; its use in such circumstances will likely be beneficial.

Abstract Title:

Information gathering with reluctant witnesses: A practitioner survey

Authors: Rebecca Wheeler, Fiona Gabbert, S Clayman, & S Jones

Abstract:
A reluctant witness is one who is believed to have witnessed an offence, or events closely connected to it, but who is unwilling to become involved in the investigative process. Although recognised in official documentation as a witness category, there is very little research on reluctant witnesses. This collaboration with two large UK police forces examines the scale of the problem of reluctant witnesses, and presents some key challenges faced by police officers. The survey of N = 47 respondents focused on three key areas (1) the frequency with which reluctant witnesses are encountered, and if these encounters share any particular features, (2) the approaches which officers take when encouraging a witness to give information or evidence, and (3) how these differ when the witness is classified as reluctant. Early analyses highlight the prevalence of reluctant witnesses in UK criminal investigations, as well as some of the key challenges faced by interviewing officers. These results underline the role that applied researchers can play in supporting police officers in handling encounters with reluctant witnesses.

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Social Events iIIRG 10th Annual Conference

This year’s programme includes a great range of social events providing a fabulous opportunity for informal networking. 

Tuesday 4th July, 2017

Welcome reception and buffet dinner – 7 pm – The Club House

monterey-hotel-768x216From 7pm, there will be a free welcome reception at the conference venue.  This will be an excellent opportunity to meet other delegates at the conference.  A buffet dinner will be provided and some free drinks.

Wednesday 5th July, 2017

Networking Event – 4.30pm – De Anza I

Our IIIRG Networking Event will commence on Wednesday 5th July immediately after the Keynote.

The aim of this event is to facilitate new collaborations (and perhaps rekindle old ones!) between investigative interviewing practitioners and academics.

To support exciting and productive collaborations between practitioners and academics, IIIRG is delighted to announce a new funding programme to support member networking and knowledge exchange.  Full details of these Networking Grants and how to apply for them will be provided at the conference.

Taking part in the IIIRG Networking Event

This networking event is open to all so we encourage all practitioners and academics to come along and mingle.

When you register you will be asked to identify yourself as (primarily) a researcher or a practitioner.  You will also be asked to select some key interests (e.g. interviewing victims and witnesses; suspect interviewing; training etc.).

During the networking event, you will be able to use these designations to track down practitioners and/or academics who share your interests – and start a conversation.

Ideally, all attendees will be able to use this Networking Event to extend their contacts and broaden their horizons through increased engagement on the topic of investigative interviewing.

Perhaps you might even kick off new collaborations or projects with your new contacts during 2017?

Wine and soft drinks will be provided.

 

Student Event – 8pm-10pm

For student delegates, there will be a relaxed social event at Peter B’s Brewpub and Bar (within the Portola Hotel).  Just turn up and meet your fellow student delegates!

Thursday 6th July, 2017

Conference Dinner – 7-10pm

aquarium-300x188This year’s conference dinner will take place at the fantastic Monterey Aquarium. Tickets include entrance to the aquarium, hors d’oeuvres, and a drink. A cash bar will be available.

The aquarium is approximately 25 minutes walk from Portola Hotel and Spa.  You will need to make your own way there.  For walking directions, please click here. Alternatively, there is a free shuttle between the Monterey Conference Center (next door to the Portola hotel) and the aquarium.   The MST Trolley runs every 10-15 minutes.  For more details, click here.

Following tradition, the iIIRG award ceremony will take place during our Conference dinner. Each year, the iIIRG awards its members at any point in their academic or practitioner career who have produced work of outstanding quality and include:

  1. The iIIRG Tom Williamson Award
  2. Practitioner Excellence Award
  3. Academic Excellence Award

More information about the awards can be found here.

Additionally, the iIIRG awards its student members for their work at the conference. This year, there will be a prize for the best piece of student research presented orally at the conference. For more information, visit http://www.iiirg.org/iiirg-s/funding-awards/.

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iIIRG-S

iIIRG Student Social event

Wednesday night – 8:00pm – 10:00pm. Location: Peter B’s Brewpub & Bar

Student Event – 8pm to 10pm at Peter B’s Brewpub & Bar (Portola Hotel)

246-0b5a8cff0ad6854887ed390f853c0e6fCome along to the student event to meet and network with other students who are attending the conference and share similar research interests. The bar is a relaxed place to grab some delicious snacks and cheap drinks—what more could you want?!

For more details about the location, please click here 

 

 

iIIRG Student Prize

The student prize for the best piece of student research presented orally at the conference (applications for this prize should have been completed prior to the conference) will be presented at the conference dinner on Thursday night!

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Sponsors

 

Indico SystemsIndico Systems is a leading provider of secure digital recording and evidential management solutions. Indico Systems software and solutions are changing the way industries record and use recordings in their respective processes, globally.

Indico has more than ten years experience in developing, integrating and testing secure recording solutions. For the criminal justice sector, Indico Systems has helped to improve the performance in suspect, witness and victim interviewing processes over the past decade. More than 100 customers around the world, including police forces, children’s safe houses, courts and the UN today rely on these solutions to save money and time, as well as provide accurate documentation.

Indico was established in 2000, and have offices in Great Britain, Denmark, Norway, and Estonia.

 

IntersolGlobal2017Logo-890x380Intersol Global is a unique association of world-renowned consultant practitioners academics and clinicians combining hundreds of years experience of investigation and investigative interviewing. Intersol Global enable individuals and institutions to engage in effective empirically-grounded investigation, placing robustly ethical investigative interviewing firmly at the heart of Extraordinary Case Management (ECM™).

 

Interview Managment SolutionsInterview Managment Solutions (IMS) are delighted to be on board as a co-sponsor of the iIIRG. The conference represents an unrivalled opportunity to meet key practitioners and academics driving research and development in the specialist field of investigative interviewing. We look forward to meeting fellow delegates and to rekindling old friendships and building new relationships.  TILES™ system is available in the Google Play store as a free download from here.

 

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Getting here

Getting to the Monterehotel3y Peninsula and the Portola Hotel & Spa couldn’t be easier. Fly directly into Monterey’s hassle-free airport located just 10 minutes from the hotel. Airlines servicing the Monterey Peninsula Airport include American, United, Alaska, Allegiant, and US Airways, offering over 80 flights daily. Other travel options include flying into San Jose International Airport, a quick one-hour drive or San Francisco International Airport, a one and a half hour drive from the picturesque Monterey Peninsula.

The Portola Hotel & Spa does not have a hotel shuttle service; however, guests are encouraged to call the Monterey Shuttle Airbus or Yellow Cab Taxi service for transportation needs during your Monterey Bay stay.

Travel to Portola Hotel and Spa from Monterey Peninsula Airport

  • Exit Airport on to Highway 68 West
  • Exit Highway 1 South and stay in the right hand lane for next exit
  • Exit the Monterey/Fisherman’s Wharf exit
  • At the first stoplight make a right hand turn onto Aguajito
  • Continue on Aguajito until it ends at Del Monte Avenue
  • Turn left on Del Monte Avenue and continue straight for three stoplights
  • Be in the left lane at the third stoplight (road will split – do not enter the tunnel)
  • Once through stop light, hotel will be ahead, one block on right side

Travel to Portola Hotel and Spa from San Jose or San Francisco Airports

  • Take 101 South to the city of Prunedale
  • Stay in right hand lane and look for the sign for Monterey Peninsula
  • Exit on Highway 156 to ‘Monterey Peninsula’ (Highway156 will become Highway 1 South)
  • Exit at Del Monte Avenue/Pacific Grove exit
  • Continue straight on Del Monte Avenue for six stoplights
  • Be in the left lane at the sixth stoplight (road will split – do not enter the tunnel)
  • Once through stop light, hotel will be ahead, one block on right side

For further travel options, please see the hotel’s website here.

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Books of Interest

witness testimony flyer

 
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Masterclass 2017

The iIIRG will host a two-day pre-conference Masterclass from the 3rd to the 4th of July 2017 that will explore the emerging research reshaping investigative and intelligence interviewing.

The Masterclass will be led by Colonel Steve Kleinman, a career intelligence officer, and Dr. Christian Meissner, a widely respected behavioral science researcher. This year’s gathering will focus on four primary topics: cross-cultural challenges, the employment of interpreters, new strategies in elicitation, and the emergence of a systems-based model of interviewing and interrogation shaped by science, human rights, and field experience. Researchers and practitioners from around the globe will be presenting innovative, data-driven solutions to many of the long-standing challenges involving the elicitation of reliable information in a manner that meets the highest legal and moral standards.

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Masterclass Programme

Monday 3rd July – Investigative and Intelligence Interviewing

8:00am Registration opens
9:00am Welcome & Opening Remarks Steven Kleinman & Christian Meissner
9:30am Imminent Threat Interviewing Laurence Alison et al.
10:45am Morning break and tea/coffee
11:00am Imminent Threat Interviewing (continued) Laurence Alison et al.
12.30pm Lunch
1:30pm Developing Trust and Rapport in the Interview Context Simon Oleszkiewicz
2:45pm The Scharff Method Steven Kleinman
3:45pm Afternoon break and tea/coffee
4:15pm “What Works” Project Erik Phillips
4:45pm Discussion and Wrap-up Christian Meissner
5:30pm End of Day

Tuesday 4th July

8:30am Registration opens
9:00am Welcome & Opening Remarks  Christian Meissner
9:15am HIG Training and Field Validation Studies Susan Brandon & Christian Meissner
9:45am Morning break and tea/coffee
10:15am The Challenges of a Science-Based Practice Matt Jones
11:15am Detecting Deception Aldert Vrij & Sharon Leal
12:00pm Lunch
1:00pm Detecting Deception (continued) Aldert Vrij & Sharon Leal
3:15pm Afternoon break and tea/coffee
3:45pm Managing Uncertainty Greg Phillips
4:30pm Discussion and Wrap-up Christian Meissner & Steven Kleinman
5:00pm End of Masterclass
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