The iIIRG 12th Annual Conference

Stavern1


This year’s conference takes place at the Norwegian Police University College Conference Centre in Stavern, Norway, and will be of interest to all professionals (academic researchers, law enforcement agencies, Government and International bodies, Judges, lawyers & students) involved in the investigation of crime and misconduct, the interviewing of victims, witnesses & suspected offenders (including ‘subjects’ and ‘insiders’), interview training and policy, interview decision-making processes, detecting deception, forensic linguistics, and high interest detainees.

 

Stavern3The 2019 Conference and Masterclass offers delegates a diverse programme of professional and leisure activities in the beautiful surroundings of Stavern. The Masterclass, led by Professor Lorraine Hope and Mr Wayne Thomas, will be focusing on intelligence debriefing: Cooperation, memory and elicitation techniques. Throughout the Conference, we will also be hearing from three fascinating keynote speakers: Professor Juan E. Mendez, Professor Lorraine Hope and Professor Laurence Alison. Delegates will enjoy a unique array of social activities including our conference dinner on the Thursday evening.

Reminders

  • If you are using a PowerPoint presentation when you present your paper or session during the conference, you will need to bring it on a USB stick or hard drive (Windows-compatible). It would be wise to bring a backup version as well.
  • Access to the wifi –
    • Wifi: PHS GjestTemp
    • Password: abcd1234
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Tuesday 25th June, 2019
6:00pm Conference Welcome Reception
Norwegian Police University College Conference Centre

 

DAY ONE – Wednesday 26th June, 2019
8:00am Registration – Norwegian Police University College Conference Centre
9:00am Conference Opening and Welcome by Directors of iIIRG
Auditorium Generalen
9:30am Sponsor Talk from Interview Management Solutions
Auditorium Generalen
9:50am Sponsor Talk from Indico
Auditorium Generalen
10:10am Keynote Address: Professor Juan E. Mendez, Former UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2010-2016).
Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Gavin Oxburgh
11:00am REFRESHMENT BREAK
Parallel sessions
Auditorium Generalen Room 260 Room 262
Chair: Yael Karni-Visel Chair: Harriet Jakobsson Öhrn Chair: Marguerite Ternes
TIME PAPER PAPER PAPER
11:30am Yael Karni-Visel, Irit Hershkowitz, Michael E Lamb, & Uri Blasbalg: Correspondence between verbal and non-verbal behavior: Children’s reactions while disclosing abuse. Harriet Jakobsson Öhrn & Christer Nyberg: Suspected of murder but innocent – experiences of police interviews. Marguerite Ternes, Anna McInnes, Laura Sodero, Jordan Ritchie & Stephanie Goodwin: What do you do to appear credible? Exploring deception strategies across three contexts.
11:50am Uri Blasbalg, Irit Hershkowitz, Yael Karni-Visel & Michael E. Lamb: The Effects of Interviewer’s Support on the Coherence of Child Abuse Forensic Statements: Comparing the Revised and Standard NICHD Protocols. Glen Turner: Practitioner Case Study – Operation Devon – Suspect Interview Plan. Jo Kendrick, Gordon Wright & Fiona Gabbert: Fool me once? twice? or time after time? A longitudinal assessment of deceptive ability in repeated written accounts.
11:50am Marthe Lefsaker Sakrisvold, Pär-Anders Granhag & Erik Mac Giolla: The consistency of corroborated alibi statements, and the effect of salience.
12:30pm LUNCH AND POSTERS
Parallel sessions
Auditorium Generalen Room 260 Room 262
Chair: Hailey Konovalov Chair: Makoto Ibusuki Chair: Lauren Wilson
TIME PAPER PAPER PAPER
1:50pm Hailey Konovalov, Hayden Henderson & Thomas D. Lyon: Forensic Interviewers’ Success With Narrative Practice. Makoto Ibusuki: How to prevent wrongful conviction caused by the false confession: Introducing to the statement analysis methodologies in Japan.
2:10pm Yee-San Teoh & Ling Lay: A Survey of Rapport-Building Practices with Alleged Victims of Child Sexual Abuse. Julia Korkman, Jan Antfolk, Jenny Skrifvars & Veronica Sui: Analysing interviews and credibility assessments in Finnish Asylum processes.
2:30pm Sam Tarling & Lucy Akehurst: “What is my dog called?” Why it is important to help children know the ‘rules’ of the interview. Lauren Wilson & Dave Walsh: Finding peace in trafficking: Maintaining interview quality across language barriers.
2:50pm Jenny Schell-Leugers, Miet Vanderhallen, Renate Volbert, Sara Landström, Trond Myklebust, Jaume Masip, Lara Gil Jung & Saul Kassin: Symposia – Police Interviewing and Interrogation: A Self-Report Survey of Police Practices and Beliefs in Europe. Katarzyna Holewik: Interpreter’s visibility in interpreter-mediated investigative interviews.
3:20pm Zsofia Szojka & David La Rooy: Narrative coherence in multiple forensic interviews with children alleging physical and sexual abuse. Eloísa Monteoliva-García: Multilingualism, interpreters and interpreting modes. A case study of the stand-by mode of interpreting in investigative interviews.
3:40pm Hayden Henderson & Thomas Lyon: How do interviewers handle children’s ‘nonresponses’ in forensic interviews? Marilena Kyriakidou, Karina Dekens, Charlotte Caleman, Jennifer Drabble, Amy Ramdeha & Antros Tsaeras: An educational video for interviewers’ and interpreters’ collaboration when interviewing children.
4:00pm End of Presentations Day One
4:30pm DINNER
5:30pm Protocol Session: Universal protocol on non-coercive interview techniques
OR
Barnahus trip
7:00pm Student Social Event in Bar
8:30pm Screening of ‘Eminent Monsters’
Auditorium Generalen


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DAY TWO – Thursday 27th June, 2019
8:00am Registration – Norwegian Police University College Conference Centre
9:00am Keynote Address: Professor Lorraine Hope, Portsmouth University, UK.
Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Trond Myklebust
Parallel sessions
Auditorium Generalen Room 260 Auditorium Kommandanten
Chair: Feni Kontogianni Chair: Minhwan Jang Chair: Nicolas Pietrasanta
TIME PAPER PAPER PAPER
9:50am Feni Kontogianni, Lorraine Hope, Paul J. Taylor, Aldert Vrij & Fiona Gabbert: “Tell me more about this…”: Seeking for the truth with follow-up questions. Minhwan Jang, Timothy J. Luke, Pär Anders Granhag, Aldert Vrij & Mooel Kim: Exploring Prisoners’ and Laypersons’ Perceptions of Police Interrogation Tactics and Evidence. Nicolas Pietrasanta: Use of open-ended questions as an interviewer’s performance measure. Evaluation of a Chilean investigative interviewer training program.
10:10am Alessandra Caso, Fiona Gabbert & Gordon Wright: Exploring the impact of question types and order on witnesses’ confidence.  Haneen Deeb, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Brianna L. Verigin & Steven M. Kleinman: When and How are Lies Told? The Role of Culture and Metacognition in Intelligence-Gathering Interviews. Greg Dear & Georgia Williams: How should caregivers respond to a child’s disclosure?
10:30am REFRESHMENT BREAK
Parallel sessions
Auditorium Generalen Room 260 Auditorium Kommandanten
Chair: Laura Farrugia Chair: Alejandra De La Fuente Vilar Chair: Greg Dear
TIME PAPER PAPER PAPER
11:00am Laura Farrugia & Fiona Gabbert: What they do and what they should do: The Appropriate Adult in mentally disordered suspect interviews in England and Wales. Alejandra De La Fuente Vilar, Robert Horselenberg, Lorraine Hope, Leif A. Strömwall, Sara Landström & Peter J. van Koppen: The Burden of Unfulfilled Expectations: Challenges of Interviewing Witnesses who Fail to Cooperate. Greg Dear: Practitioner Case Study – Investigative interviews in civil law proceedings.
11:20am Tone Hee Åker: A national study of investigative interviews of adolescents and adults with disabilities as alleged victims of violence and sexual abuse. Kirk Luther, Christopher Kelly, Steven Watson, Greg Yanicki, Julie Jackson, Paul Taylor & Fiona Gabbert: Examining turning points within investigative interviews.
11:40am Martin Vaughan, Rebecca Milne & Julie Cherryman: Managing Investigative Interviews with Vulnerable Suspects- Do Interview Advisers actually understand vulnerability? Michel St-Yves, Andréanne Bergeron & Nadien Deslauriers-Varin: Why and how suspect resistance manifests itself within interrogation setting. Laura Melnyk Gribble: Practitioner Case Study – Assessing the reliability of abuse allegations in a recent Canadian case.
12:00pm Andréanne Bergeron & Michel St-Yves: Overcoming suspect resistance during police interrogation: Has research reached its limits?
12:20pm LUNCH
1:10pm AGM
Auditorium Generalen
Parallel sessions
Auditorium Generalen Room 260 Auditorium Kommandanten
Chair: Evelina Medin Chair: Galit Nahari Chair: Christopher Kelly
1:30pm Evelina Medin, Rhianna Watts, Danielle Jackson, Rachel Falk, Sam Tarling, Lisa Isaacson, Janine Stevenson, Victoria Mattison, Anna Churcher-Clarke & Fabienne Palmer: Long Symposia – Interviewing children who disclose sexual trauma – practice points from London’s new multidisciplinary service. Galit Pahari, Tzachi Ashkenazi, Ronald P. Fisher, Par-Anders Granhag, Irit Hershkowitz, Jaume Masip, Ewout H. Meijer, Zvi Nisin, Nadav Sarid, Paul J. Taylor, Bruno Verschuere, & Aldert Vrij: Urgent issues and prospects in verbal lie detection: A message from researchers and practitioners in the field. Christopher Kelly, Michael McClary & Debbie Frankfort: What Happens in Vegas (is Shared in Stavern).
1:50pm Glynis Bogaard & Ewout H. Meijer: Detecting lies: Instructing people to ignore nonverbal cues is not sufficient to improve deception accuracy.
2:10pm Yee San Teoh, Cheng-Yi Chuang, Kuan-Ju Huang, Yu-Wen Wang & Jing-Yi Chuang: Detection of Deception in Corruption Cases in Taiwan.
2:30pm Louise Jupe, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Galit Pahari, Andrei Viziteu, Rachel Smith & Faisal Al Menaiya: The Reversed Question Protocol: Assessing its Applicability to a Criminal Paradigm. Davut Akca, Joseph Eastwood, Charlene Di Danieli & Matthew Shane: The Impact of Interview Training and Personality Characteristics on Investigative Interviewing Performance.
2:50pm Charlotte Hudson, Aldert Vrij, Lucy Akehurst, & Lorraine Hope: “He went that way!”: Consistent and detailed eyewitness deceptions. Christian Axboe Nielsen: Analysts’ Interaction with Lawyers and Investigators in Witness and Suspect Interviews in Complex International Criminal Investigations.
3:10pm REFRESHMENT BREAK
Parallel sessions
Auditorium Generalen Room 260 Auditorium Kommandanten
Chair: Gary Pankhurst Chair: Nathanael E.J Sumampouw Chair: Sarah Shaffer
3:40pm Ruther, M.; Pankhurst, G.; Burne, P.; Harcourt, B.; Underhill, O.; Smulders, T.V.; & Robertson, B-A.: Implications for investigative interviewing: Empathy and emotional valence in the recall of negative episodic memory using a validated memory task. Nathanael E.J Sumampouw, Corine de Ruiter & Henry Otgaar: Confirmation bias in police investigators working with CSA cases. Sarah Shaffer & Jacqueline R. Evans: Realism in HUMINT Research: A New (and Realistic) Paradigm for Examining the Scharff Technique and Similar Interrogative Approaches.
4:00pm Ching-Yu Huang, Laura Sakalauskaite, Christina Prokic, Lauren Mills, Terri Cole & Robert Cooper: Does sexual assault victim’s intoxication state affect the quality of investigative interviews? – An analysis of real police interviews in the UK. Christina Winters, Paul J. Taylor & Kirk Luther: Safe Space: The Impact of Medium versus Location on Self-Disclosure. Sarah Shaffer, Kureva Matuku & Jacqueline R. Evans: Effectiveness of the Scharff Technique in Elicitation in Repeated and Unexpected Interviews.
4:20pm Ching-Yu Huang, Christina Prokic, Laura Sakalauskaite, Lauren Mills, Terri Cole & Robert Cooper: How were sexual assault victims being interviewed in the UK? – A descriptive analysis of real police interviews. Kathleen Hyland & Marguerite Ternes: An Investigation of Alternative Questions. Magdalene Ng, Eugene Tee, Fiona Gabbert & Gordon Wright: Rapport: What Works in South East Asia?
4:40pm Patricia Canning: ‘Let someone else say that’: forensic linguistic approaches to witness narratives. Kirsten Hanna & Emily Henderson: Defence lawyers’ and intermediaries’ assessment of the language used to question a child witness. Joseph Eastwood, Davut Akca, Christina Connors, Mark Snow & Quintan Crough: Assessing Mock Victims’ Perception of the Importance of Interviewer Characteristics.
5:00pm End of Presentations Day Two
6:30pm Conference Dinner and Award Ceremony


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DAY THREE – Friday 28th June, 2019
8:30am Registration – Norwegian Police University College Conference Centre
9:00am Keynote Address: Professor Laurence Alison, Director of the Centre for Critical Incident Research, University of Liverpool, UK.
Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Fiona Gabbert
Parallel sessions
Auditorium Generalen Room 260 Room 262
Chair: JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen Chair: Fiona Gabbert
TIME PAPER PAPER
9:50am JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen, Barry Parsonson, Nana Burduli, Tamar Mumladze, & Tamta Saamishvili: Symposium – Investigative interviewing – Mutual informing across research design, laboratory-based research, practice-based research through to training and policy. David Zulawski: Practitioner Case Study – Non-confrontational Interrogation: Constructing the Introductory Statement.
10:10am
10:30am REFRESHMENT BREAK
Parallel sessions
Auditorium Generalen Room 260 Room 262
Chair: JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen Chair: Fiona Gabbert
TIME PAPER PAPER
11:00am JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen, Barry Parsonson, Nana Burduli, Tamar Mumladze & Tamta Saamishvili: Symposium – Investigative interviewing – Mutual informing across research design, laboratory-based research, practice-based research through to training and policy. Lee Moffatt, Gavin Oxburgh, Steven Watson & Fiona Gabbert: Inside the shadows: A practitioner’s view of human source interactions.
11:20am Martin Vaughan & Jeffrey Hutcherson: Practitioner Case Study – Using Cognitive Lie Detection Techniques in Child Homicide Investigation.
11:40am
12:00pm Conference Closure and Invite to the 13th Annual iIIRG Conference 2020 (Winchester, UK)
Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Gavin Oxburgh & Trond Myklebust
12:30pm LUNCH
1:30pm End of Conference
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Keynotes

This year will involve three keynotes from international experts.

Professor Juan E. Mendez, Former UN Special Rapporteur on Torture (2010-2016)

Juan E. Méndez is a Professor of Human Rights Law in Residence at the American University – Washington College of Law, where he is Faculty Director of the Anti-Torture Initiative, a project of WCL’s Center for Human Rights and Humanitarian Law. He was the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman and Degrading Treatment or Punishment between November 1, 2010 and October 31, 2016. He is the author (with Marjory Wentworth) of “Taking A Stand: The Evolution of Human Rights” (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2011), a Spanish and updated version of which will appear in 2019 by Fondo de Cultura Económica, México. In early 2017 Professor Méndez was elected Commissioner of the International Commission of Jurists, Geneva, Switzerland. In February 2017, he was named a member of the Selection Committee to appoint magistrates of the Special Jurisdiction for Peace and members of the Truth Commission set up as part of the Colombian Peace Accords, a task the Selection Committee successfully completed in December of that year. He was an advisor on crime prevention to the Prosecutor, International Criminal Court from 2009 to 2011 and Co-Chair of the Human Rights Institute of the International Bar Association in 2010 and 2011. Until May 2009 he was the President of the International Center for Transitional Justice (ICTJ), of which he is now President Emeritus. Concurrent with his duties at ICTJ, the Honorable Kofi Annan named Mr. Méndez his Special Advisor on the Prevention of Genocide, a task he performed from 2004 to 2007. A native of Argentina, Mr. Méndez has dedicated his legal career to the defense of human rights. As a result of his representation of political prisoners, the Argentinean military dictatorship arrested him and subjected him to torture and administrative detention for more than a year. During this time, Amnesty International adopted him as a “Prisoner of Conscience.” After his expulsion from his country in 1977, Mr. Méndez moved to the United States. He worked with Human Rights Watch on human rights issues in the western hemisphere from 1982 to 1994 and, between 1994 and 1996, as General Counsel. From 1996 to 1999, Mr. Méndez was the Executive Director of the Inter‑American Institute of Human Rights in Costa Rica, and between October 1999 and May 2004 he was Professor of Law and Director of the Center for Civil and Human Rights at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana. Between 2000 and 2003 he was a member of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights of the Organization of American States, and served as its President in 2002. He has taught International Human Rights Law at Georgetown Law School and at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, and he teaches regularly at the Oxford Masters Program (MSt) in International Human Rights Law in the United Kingdom, where he is a Visiting Fellow of the Kellogg College. He is the recipient of several human rights awards: the Rafael Lemkin Award for contributions to the prevention of genocide by the Auschwitz Institute on Peace and Reconciliation (2010); the Goler T. Butcher Medal from the American Society of International Law (2010); the Louis B. Sohn and the Adlai Stevenson Awards from the UN Association of the US (Washington and Princeton Chapters); Doctorates Honoris Causa from the University of Quebec in Montreal (2006), the Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Argentina (2012) and the National University of Mar del Plata, Argentina (2015); the inaugural “Monsignor Oscar A. Romero Award for Leadership in Service to Human Rights,” by the University of Dayton (2000); the “Jeanne and Joseph Sullivan Award” of the Heartland Alliance (2003); the Letelier-Moffitt Human Rights Award of the Institute for Policy Studies (2014); and the Eclipse Award of the Center for Victims of Torture (2016). His current field of practice is International Human Rights Law, with expertise in Transitional Justice, Prevention of Genocide and Mass Atrocities, Rights of Persons Deprived of Liberty, and the Right to Personal Integrity. Mr. Méndez is a member of the bar of Mar del Plata and Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the District of Columbia, U.S., having earned a J.D. from Stella Maris Catholic University in Argentina and a certificate from the American University Washington College of Law.

 

Professor Lorraine Hope, University of Portsmouth. A core member affiliated with the Information Elicitation programme of the UK National Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST)

Lorraine Hope is Professor of Applied Cognitive Psychology at the University of Portsmouth and a core member affiliated with the Information Elicitation programme of the UK National Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST) (https://crestresearch.ac.uk). She is also the Strategic Lead for the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group (iIIRG). Over the past 20 years, her research has resulted in the development of innovative tools and techniques, informed by psychological science and practitioner need, for eliciting accurate and detailed information and intelligence across a range of investigative contexts (e.g. Timeline Technique, Self-administered Interview, Structured Interview Protocol). Her work has had global impact and she regularly delivers tools, research, evaluation and training for investigative interviewing and information elicitation in international policing, intelligence and security sectors, including inter- and multi-national agencies, such the Organisation for the Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), the International Criminal Court (ICC) and the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group (HIG). Current projects include working with international investigators to develop policy recommendations for informing the conduct of investigative interviews in cross-cultural contexts. As a leader in interviewing research developments, and experienced in working with a range of stakeholders and end-users, Lorraine presents and publishes extensively on interviewing and applied memory topics.

 

Key Note Laurence Alison for app and program on webProfessor Laurence Alison, Director of the Centre for Critical Incident Research, University of Liverpool, UK.

Professor Alison is Director of Critical and Major Incident (CAMI) Research at the Department of Psychology, University of Liverpool. CAMI focuses on high profile critical and major incidents (from disaster management to terrorism). Prof Alison has over 28 years of experience working on applied projects for Law enforcement and the security services.

He currently provides training to FBI/CIA/DoD, The UKs National CT interviewing cadre and the British Army in the ORBIT framework for rapport-based interrogation methods.

He was key psychological advisor on over 450 critical and major incidents debriefs including the 7/7 bombings, the Sharm El Sheik attacks, the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko and the preparations for the London Olympics.

He was key advisor and research on a child sexual exploitation project that resulted in the largest operation in UK police history and which, across a 6-month period, led to the arrest of over 1,200 offenders, the safeguarding of over 1,000 children and a cost saving to UK government of £15million. He has over 200 published articles, books, edited books and government and industry reports.

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Abstracts

Day 1 – Wednesday 26th June, 2019

Auditorium: Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Gavin Oxburgh

Abstract Title:

KEYNOTE: An International Law Instrument to Regulate Interviews in Criminal Investigations

Authors: Juan E Méndez

Abstract:
There is now a body of practice and of science that demonstrates the risks associated with torture, ill-treatment and all forms of coercion in the conduct of interviews with suspects of crime. In addition to the immorality and illegality of interrogation under pressure, the results are ineffective and even counter-productive. Torture-tainted evidence produces failed prosecutions and disperses law enforcement resources. It also affects the professionalism and the morale of agents in charge of investigating crime and erodes the confidence of society on the institutions created to protect the citizenry. At the same time, there is a model of interviewing that has proven to be more effective, as well as professional and ethical. It is not confession-driven but truth-driven, and its foundation is the need to realize the presumption of innocence from the beginning of any criminal investigation. It is time for international law to develop a “soft-law” instrument (similar to the Nelson Mandela Rules, the Minnesota Protocol or the Istanbul Protocol) that can guide the conduct of investigative interviews under this principle and thereby assist all States in complying with binding international obligations like the prohibition of torture and ill-treatment and respect for due process and fair trial guarantees. With support and participation by many scholars and practitioners, a drafting and advocacy project to that end is under way.

Auditorium: Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Yael Karni-Visel

Abstract Title:

Correspondence between verbal and non-verbal behavior: Children’s reactions while disclosing abuse

Authors: Yael Karni-Visel, Irit Hershkowitz, Michael E Lamb, & Uri Blasbalg

Abstract:
Background: Research has shown that children’s verbal and non-verbal behavior during forensic interviews may predict their disclosure of abuse, but these two modes of children’s behavior have only been studied separately. The current study aimed to explore the co-occurrence of verbal and nonverbal indicators during investigative interviews.
Method: We studied DVD-recorded and transcribed interviews of 63 alleged victims of child abuse. The children were interviewed using the Revised NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol and disclosed physical or sexual abuse. Two raters coded the videotapes for nonverbal indices of positive and negative emotions, stress, and disengagement in each 15-second unit. Two other naive raters independently coded the transcripts for verbal indices of positive and negative emotions and reluctance.
Results: Non-verbal and verbal expressions of emotion were positively inter-correlated. Nonverbal indicators of stress and negative emotional expressions were associated with verbal reluctance, whereas nonverbal disengagement was positively correlated with the number of verbal omissions. Smiles correlated with both positive and negative verbal expressions of emotion.
Conclusions: Most nonverbal and verbal cues were consistent although some inconsistencies were evident. Close examination of children’s verbal and nonverbal behavior may provide useful information about children’s emotions and help interviewers manage children’s emotions while encouraging valid disclosures.

Abstract Title:

The Effects of Interviewer’s Support on the Coherence of Child Abuse Forensic Statements: Comparing the Revised and Standard NICHD Protocols

Authors: Uri Blasbalg, Irit Hershkowitz, Yael Karni-Visel, & Michael E. Lamb

Abstract:
The few studies that have assessed interviewing practices affecting the coherence of children’s statements have focused on question types while overlooking interviewers’ efforts to act supportively. We examined possible associations between the use of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Revised Investigative Interview Protocol (RP) and the coherence of legal statements elicited by reluctant children. The sample comprised 274 interviews with 4-to 14-year-olds who were suspected victims of physical abuse perpetrated by parents. The interviews were conducted by interviewers who used either the RP (180), which emphasizes the provision of non-suggestive support, or the Standard (94) Protocol
which emphasizes the use of cognitive interviewing strategies. Following Reese et al. (2011), coders assessed three dimensions of coherence: context, chronology and theme.
The utilization of the RP predicted elevated production of internal state information, descriptions of dialogue, and resolution, but was not associated with the production of information regarding the time, location, and presence of other people (context). Furthermore, use of the RP predicted declines in children’s failures to provide temporally sequenced narratives (chronology) and to sustain internal consistency.
Overall, the study suggested that support can effectively promote the coherence of children’s accounts during forensic interviews.

Conference Room 2 (Room 251)
Chair: Harriet Jakobsson Öhrn

Abstract Title:

Suspected of murder but innocent – experiences of police interviews

Authors: Harriet Jakobsson Öhrn & Christer Nyberg

Abstract:
Research has found that presumption of guilt in police interviews activates a process of behavioural confirmation, where the interviewer tries to verify her/his beliefs. Research has also found that such persuasive interviews involve a risk of losing valuable information and can elicit false confessions from innocent persons. Furthermore the interviews can create emotions of resentment on the accused.
In three Swedish cases persons suspected of homicide where later found to be totally innocent. In the interviews the police acted from their conviction of the suspects’ guilt and tried to make them confess.
In this study interviews were made with those three initially suspected persons in order to examine their experiences of the police interviews. Analysis of the interviews shows that an early feeling of hope to be given the opportunity of telling their own story soon changed to feelings of distrust and despair. It also led to doubts about their own memory of what had happen. “Can I have done something terrible without remembering?”

Abstract Title:

Practitioner Case Study – Operation Devon – Suspect Interview Plan

Authors: Glen Turner

Abstract:
Paddy Woods was interviewed by two New Zealand Detectives on 22 February 2018. He was the suspect of the murder of Zenith Campbell, a 22 year old transgender woman. The deceased was located in the suspects vehicle on 11 February in the front passenger seat foot well, in central Wellington.
Post Mortem revealed that Campbell had died from injuries consistent with strangulation. She had a fracture to her hyoid bone in her neck, consistent with a strangulation injury. . The Initial PM report stated the injuries occurred perimortem.
The suspect made a written statement to Police on the day the body was discovered and was treated as a witness. He stated that he had been with Campbell that evening and the pair has been in the vehicle together. He stated that he discovered her dead, lying on his lap in the front seat, after being asleep for several hours. he totally denied any foul play.
In his second interview with Police, this time as a suspect on DVD, he maintained his story, even after careful challenges from his inconsistence statements and conflicting testimony from other witnesses.
This case study will display the New Zealand method of suspect investigative interviewing and how evidence is produced to the suspect for maximum effect. As well, will display a typical interview plan for a serious offence and how that can be implemented during the interview.

Conference Room 3 (Room 160)
Chair: Marguerite Ternes

Abstract Title:

What do you do to appear credible? Exploring deception strategies across three contexts.

Authors: Marguerite Ternes, Anna McInnis, Laura Sodero, Jordan Ritchie, & Stephanie Goodwin

Abstract:
Most people perform rather poorly when trying to distinguish truths from lies, with accuracy usually near chance levels. Some researchers have attempted to improve lie detection techniques by exploring the strategies used to appear truthful when lying (i.e., deception strategies). The present set of studies added to this body of research by exploring deception strategies in three contexts. In Study 1, paired undergraduate participants told each other two stories about truly experienced events and one lie. In Study 2, participants were interviewed regarding truthful and fabricated experiences of emotionally negative events. In Study 3, participants were asked to fabricate an academic excuse. All participants were asked to recount their deception strategies. Across the three studies, it was common to use more than one deception strategy. Verbal strategies were most common in Studies 2 and 3, while nonverbal strategies were most common in Study 1. Participants in Study 2 were more likely to mention fidgeting and verbal hedges (behaviours often associated with deception) as deception strategies, likely because they were attempting to portray negative emotions. Altogether, these results suggest that the context of the lie influences deception strategies and should be considered when developing lie detection methods.

Abstract Title:

Fool me once? twice? or time after time? A longitudinal assessment of deceptive ability in repeated written accounts.

Authors: Jo Kenrick, Gordon Wright, & Fiona Gabbert

Abstract:
Studies have demonstrated variability in lying skill (Ekman & Friesen, 1974; Wright, Berry & Bird, 2013) but whether such differences are stable over time has not been tested. Cognitive models of expertise suggest that skill development involves a progression of level-based qualitative increments to a point of reliably effortless mastery (Hoffman, 1998). But whether this applies to deceptive ability is not known. The current longitudinal study measured the deceptive ability of 100 Participants at various time points to explore whether good and bad liars are consistent in their performance and what might predict differences in lying skill. Participants provided falsified written accounts of personal experiences in a unique online lie elicitation task completed at 4 x different times (one week apart). The HEXACO questionnaire and a self-report lying frequency measure were completed once. Data collection is complete and analysis (using LIWC, forensic linguistics and Growth Curve Modeling) is ongoing to explore the hypothesis that individual lying ability (like other complex socio-cognitive skills) is stable over time and can be partially predicted by practice (measured by self-reported lying frequency). Better understanding of the nature of lying ability (especially highly skilled liars) will lead to the development of more effective counter-measures.

Abstract Title:

The consistency of corroborated alibi statements, and the effect of salience

Authors: Marthe Lefsaker Sakrisvold, Pär-Anders Granhag & Erik Mac Giolla

Abstract:
How to discriminate between honest and deceptive alibi statements holds great legal importance. We examined this issue from the perspective of group deception. Our goals were to (a) compare the consistency between the statements of guilty and innocent suspects corroborated by witnesses, and (b) to examine the moderating role of object-salience on the level of consistency between their statements. Pairs of truth-tellers provided honest testimonies. Pairs of liars were divided into perpetrators and false corroborators. Statements of lying pairs were considerably more consistent than the statements of truth-telling pairs. In addition, both truth-tellers and liars showed lower levels of within-group consistency when recalling less salient details about an event. However, truth-tellers’ consistency levels were considerably more affected by salience than were liars’ consistency levels. These findings contribute to deception theory and have important implications for the real-life task of distinguishing between honest and deceptive alibi statements corroborated by witnesses.

Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Hailey Konovalov

Abstract Title:

Forensic Interviewers’ Success With Narrative Practice

Author: Hailey Konovalov, Hayden Henderson, & Thomas D. Lyon

Abstract:
Narrative practice, in which the interviewer asks open-ended questions about non-abuse events, aims to build rapport (Anderson et al., 2014) while training the child to provide episodic, rather than script, memories of alleged abuse (Lamb et al., 1999), and has been shown to increase the productivity of children’s disclosures (Hershkowitz, 2009). No research has investigated how well interviewers implement open-ended, episodic narrative practice. The current study will examine the narrative practice in 391 forensic interview transcripts (9,120 utterances) involving children alleging sexual abuse (aged 4-12 years, M = 7.62). Based on informal observation, we predict that interviewers often a) elicit script rather than episodic memories; b) use negative pairing, in which non-responses to invitations are followed by option-posing questions; c) abandon narrative practice when children remain non-responsive; and d) choose topics that are less than optimal in eliciting information. We will examine the extent to which these difficulties are related to age and reluctance to disclose. Overall, the results will contribute to improving training of forensic interviewers through better understanding how to elicit complete, coherent, and detailed accounts of abuse incidents from children.

Abstract Title:

A Survey of Rapport-Building Practices with Alleged Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

Authors: Yee-San Teoh & Ling Lay

Abstract:
The present study’s aim was to explore the difficulties related to building rapport with children in the forensic context, and the behaviours that reluctant alleged victims tend to exhibit. Importantly, we sought to identify any issues that might be unique to Taiwan’s culture and practice. We were particularly interested in whether children show reluctance differently in Taiwan, or that certain strategies recommended in the literature may not work as well in this culture. We surveyed one hundred practitioners involved in the investigative interviewing of alleged victims of child sexual abuse. Regardless of whether the interviewer was an intermediary (e.g. psychologist, social worker, or teacher) or legal professional, interviewers often cited ‘difficulty with building rapport’ as a challenge in interviewing children. This was especially so with police officers and prosecutors, many of whom had little or no background and professional training in interviewing children. Rapport-building was especially difficult in cases that involved suspected familial abuse and a custody dispute involving the alleged victim. Barriers to effective rapport-building included uncooperative accompanying adults, time constraints, and lack of support for intermediaries. We will also present findings on techniques reported by practitioners to be useful for building rapport with vulnerable witnesses.

Abstract Title:

“What is my dog called?” Why it is important to help children know the ‘rules’ of the interview.

Authors: Sam Tarling & Lucy Akehurst

Abstract:
Psychologists have explored the optimum conditions to achieve reliable and detailed accounts from children. They concluded that sound questioning technique can only be effective if children understand the requirements on them to provide an accurate and complete account by appreciating that, unlike in other social situations, the interviewing adult is not the expert and does not know what has happened (La Rooy, Heydon, Korkman & Myklebust, 2016). It is suggested that the efficacy of ‘ground rules’ outlined in many interview models only applies when they are delivered in a practical way with feedback prior to the interview (Powell & Wright, 2008).

I would like to present my recent MSc research, designed to investigate the experiences of investigators trained in interviewing child witnesses with particular focus on the way that ground rules are covered during the investigative process. Semi structured interviews were conducted and then analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). The research found that while the participants were unfamiliar with the rationale of covering ground rules prior to the recorded interview they did consider the application of ground rules as both necessary for the witness and the interviewer. This presentation will conclude with good practice examples of ground rules application in a practical way during a pre interview assessment.

Abstract Title:

Narrative coherence in multiple forensic interviews with children alleging physical and sexual abuse

Authors: Zsofia Szojka & David La Rooy

Abstract:
This study investigated the narrative coherence of children’s accounts elicited in multiple forensic interviews, and explored the relationship between the components of narrative coherence: completeness, consistency and connectedness. We expected that multiple interviews will increase the completeness and decrease the consistency of testimonies. Our analyses regarding linguistic connectedness were exploratory. A field study was conducted, involving the analysis of transcriptions of 56 police interviews with 28 children alleging physical and sexual abuse aged 3-14 years, coded for markers of completeness, consistency and connectedness, and analysed using RM-ANOVAs. We found that multiple interviews increased the completeness of children’s testimony, containing on average almost twice as much new information as single interviews, including crucial location, time and abuse-related details. When both contradictions within the same interview and across interviews were considered, contradictions were no more frequent in multiple interviews. The frequency of linguistic markers of connectedness remained stable across multiple interviews. Multiple interviews increase the narrative coherence of children’s testimony through increasing their completeness without necessarily introducing contradictions into their accounts or decreasing causal-temporal connections between details. However, as ‘ground truth’ is not known in field studies, further investigation of the relationship between the narrative coherence and accuracy of testimonies is required.

Abstract Title:

How do interviewers handle children’s ‘nonresponses’ in forensic interviews?

Authors: Hayden Henderson & Thomas Lyon

Abstract:
During forensic interviews, children may express uncertainty, say they ‘don’t know’, seek clarification or exhibit some other type of nonresponsiveness. How interviewers ought to respond to children’s non-responsiveness, however, is an open question. Earhart (2014) found that interviewers’ follow-ups to children’s ‘don’t know’ responses usually led to responsive answers, but treated this as a bad thing, because interviewers often moved to more closed-ended questions. Malloy and colleagues (2015) found that interviewers’ follow-ups to children’s requests for clarification usually led to responsive answers, and treated this as a good thing, without assessing if interviewers moved to more closed-ended questions.

Hence, this study will be the first to examine children’s nonresponsiveness collectively. We will examine 391 forensic interviews with 4- to 12-year-old children (M = 7.62) (2775 ‘don’t know’ responses, 1598 clarification-seeking responses, and 5835 uncertain responses). We suspect that moving to more closed-ended questions, which we call negative pairing, can be either a positive or negative strategy depending on the reasons underlying children’s nonresponsiveness, including question vagueness and ambiguity (e.g. invitations with insufficient cuing), topic difficulty (e.g., number and time), and children’s reluctance. The goal is to develop more nuanced advice for practitioners when encountering the nonresponsive child.

Conference Room 2 (Room 251)
Chair: Makoto Ibusuki

Abstract Title:

How to prevent wrongful conviction caused by the false confession: Introducing to the statement analysis methodologies in Japan

Author: Makoto Ibusuki

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to introduce various methods for analyzing the reliability of confession in Japan before video-recording of suspect interview was introduced. This paper also argues the risk of wrongful conviction caused by the video-recording image without evaluation methodology.
In 2019, the Japanese law enforcement started the mandatory video recording of suspects in the specific crime categories. On the other hand, we have not established the evaluation method for the reliability of confession based on the film recorded video images in the interview room although some courts have already permitted to use the video as primary evidence in the criminal trials.
Pre-recording era, the court relied on the written statements in order to evaluate the reliability of the confession. For assisting the decision by the court for the reliability, psychologists have developed their methodologies in Japan.
This paper discusses about the deficiency of the method for evaluating recorded confession, and issues a warning for the possibility of wrongful conviction when the decision is based on the intuitive evaluation by the court.

Abstract Title:

Symposia – Police Interviewing and Interrogation: A Self-Report Survey of Police Practices and Beliefs in Europe

Authors: Jenny Schell-Leugers, Miet Vanderhallen, Renate Volbert, Sara Landström, Trond Myklebust, Jaume Masip, Lara Gil Jung & Saul Kassin

Abstract:
On a daily basis, thousands of suspects all around the world are interviewed. While police detectives are trying to find out whether a suspect has been involved in a crime, suspects often feel intimidated during an interrogation, especially those who are innocent. In recent years, the detection of wrongful convictions in America, often with DNA evidence, has highlighted the impact of coercive interrogation techniques on innocent suspects. However, police interrogations are vital to the process of solving crimes and serving justice.
To get a better picture in how far common police practices can play a role in wrongful convictions, Kassin and colleagues (2007) surveyed 631 North American police investigators to examine their interrogation beliefs and practices. They constructed a questionnaire in which the participants, were asked to report on six topics: deception detection, Miranda warnings, interrogation techniques, interviews and interrogations, confession rates, and the recording of interrogations. The findings from this survey gave insight into what happens in North American interrogation rooms. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has examined the beliefs and practices of European police investigators. It is important to note that many European countries operate under an inquisitorial legal system and that suspect interviews have shifted from a more accusatorial towards an information gathering approach in recent years. Furthermore, the Salduz ruling resulted in reformed procedures concerning legal assistance during interrogations, which may had an impact on interrogation practices as well. However, little is known about what actually happens in interrogations in Europe.
In an effort to better understand how experienced investigators in different European countries approach the processes of interviewing and interrogation, we are seeking to replicate the self-report survey of North American police practices and beliefs by Kassin and colleagues (2007). We are employing an adapted version of their instrument, covering investigators’ beliefs and practices about 1) their ability to detect truth and deception, 2) suspects’ willingness to talk to the police, 3) the use of various interrogation techniques, 4) the frequency and length of interviews and interrogations, 5) the rates of true and false confessions, and 6) their own practices and opinions with regard to the recording of interrogations and confessions.
Our goal is to explore and compare police practices and beliefs in six European countries (Belgium, Germany, Netherlands, Norway, Spain and Sweden), and to compare – where possible – the data collected in this sample to those previously obtained in North America. The potential benefits of the study are important for questions pertaining to investigators’ self-reported interrogation practices, beliefs and perceptions. We believe that the potential benefit of the proposed research is substantial. It will aid to gain knowledge about common practices used by investigators and the results might help with reforming certain police practices.

Conference Room 3 (Room 260)
Chair: Lauren Wilson

Abstract Title:

Analysing interviews and credibility assessments in Finnish Asylum processes

Authors: Julia Korkman, Jan Antfolk, Jenny Skrifvars, & Veronica Sui

Abstract:
The aim of the current study is to investigate how applicants are questioned about personal experiences within the asylum seeking process in Finland. Descriptions of such experiences tend to be of core importance when immigration authorities try to assess who is genuinely in need of international protection and who is not. While these decisions have tremendous bearing on the lives of the applicants, Finnish immigration services have provided very scarce training for interviewers as well as decision makers. Based on previous international findings, it is expected that also Finnish asylum procedures will be problematic in terms of interview quality and the basis of decisions made.
Within the current study, 200 randomly selected cases including interviews and decisions from 2017 and 2018 in Finland, will be analysed with regards to a) how the applicants were asked about personal experience and b) how the information provided was assessed within the legal decision. Particular attention will be paid to the quality of questions as well as on whether the expectations made on the asylum seekers and the information they provide can be considered reasonable in the light of what is known about human memory.

Abstract Title:

Finding peace in trafficking: Maintaining interview quality across language barriers

Authors: Lauren Wilson & Dave Walsh

Abstract:
Foreign nationals represent a growing vulnerable population, whose interview evidence is moderated by the necessity of an interpreter. Evidence suggests that there is heightened concern amongst investigators regarding the accuracy of the interpreted interview when working with legal interpreters. While guidance and training for investigators working with interpreters in the United Kingdom has begun to be developed, there is a dearth of empirical evidence to support the training rollout. The present study seeks to investigate the impact interpreters have on the quality and accuracy of an interpreter-assisted investigative interviews. Twelve audio recordings of interpreter-assisted interviews were obtained from police constabularies in the United Kingdom. Measures were taken to evaluate interview quality in the original English utterances compared to the interpreted utterances. Quality was then further compared to twelve non-interpreted interviews. Interim findings suggest that although interview techniques are largely maintained through the interpreter, investigators show significantly higher inappropriate interview techniques when conducting interpreted interviews compared to non-interpreted interviews. Implications for the quality of the interview are discussed and potentially opportunities for investigative practitioners to improve the quality of interviews conducted with interpreters are explored.

Abstract Title:

Interpreter’s visibility in interpreter-mediated investigative interviews

Authors: Katarzyna Holewik

Abstract:
Following the sociocultural turn in the translation and interpreting studies the interpreter’s role in the interaction is no longer perceived as a conduit, channel, pane of glass or machine. Instead, the interpreter has become a central figure and a visible agent, co-constructor and co-conversationalist (Angelelli 2004, Berk-Seligson 1990, Roy 2000, Wadensjö 1998), a co- participant whose task is not only to translate but also coordinate and manage the interaction (Hale 2007, Linell 1997, Llewellyn-Jones and Lee 2014, Nakane 2014, Roy 1993/2002, 2000, Wadensjö 1998,) and the act of translation and interpreting is considered a socially situated practice (Inghilleri 2003, Wolf 2004, 2007).
The interpreter’s visibility, or active participation, in the interaction can be manifested in numerous ways, such as asking for clarification and repetition, managing turn taking and simultaneous talk, handling misunderstandings, explaining specialist terminology or alerting the parties to possible cultural differences, to name but a few. The paper examines the above mentioned interpreter’s operations (moves) from the perspective of police officers as well as interpreters themselves with the view that “(…) fluctuations of participation framework necessarily result from participants’ joint activity” (Wadensjö 1998:195).
The paper aims at addressing the following questions:

  • What are the perceptions of the interpreter’s visibility in the interaction from the perspective of police officers and interpreters?
  • Are the perceptions conflicting or similar and what can they be attributed to?
  • Can the interpreter be considered an active participant in the interaction in the institutional context?

In order to explore the interpreter’s visibility in the interaction, a study has been carried out among the interpreters, trainee interpreters and police officers in southern Poland. Questionnaires and qualitative interviews were used as data collection methods. The study is a part of an ongoing larger research project.

Abstract Title:

Multilingualism, interpreters and interpreting modes. A case study of the stand-by mode of interpreting in investigative interviews.

Authors: Eloísa Monteoliva-García

Abstract:
This presentation discusses the impact of an atypical and still under-researched interpreting mode upon communication in investigative interviews, and reflects upon different interpreting modes. The findings stem from a case study of two video-recorded authentic police interviews with Spanish-speaking suspects with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) conducted in English in Scotland. The linguistic regime in the interviews featured interaction in English between the interviewers and the interviewee and intermittent interpreter participation. This linguistic regime is the so-called ‘stand-by’ mode of interpreting (Angermeyer 2008), a mode that emerges as a result of a phenomenon that is more and more prominent in multilingual societies –emerging bilingualism and multilingual resources among interpreting users. Drawing on Conversation Analysis and Interactional Sociolinguistics, the analysis explores both verbal and non-verbal features (gaze, hand, head and upper-body gestures, and object manipulation), the macro-structural organisation of the interviews, and intersections of participants’ moves at a micro level with macro-level. These include interpreting use per phase; the distribution of responsibility over interpreting-related moves; turn-taking features; and observable effects of conversational actions upon the unfolding of the interaction. The presentation discusses the features of this mode in practice when compared to more standard modes of interpreting, and both its potential and its risks for communication in investigative interviewing settings.

Abstract Title:

An educational video for interviewers’ and interpreters’ collaboration when interviewing children.

Authors: Marilena Kyriakidou, Karina Dekens, Charlotte Caleman, Jennifer Drabble, Amy Ramdeha, & Antros Tsaeras

Abstract:
The growing migration in European Countries and other condiments increased the need of foreign language interpretation services in investigative interviews and added to the continuous commitment in helping front line interviewers of children. Although interpreters are expected to literally translate what is being said from one language to another, applied forensic linguistics suggests that things are not that simple! If interviewers, interpreters and children are not prepared for this group effort to extract forensic details, interpretation may lead to misinterpreted testimonies. This project was funded by the International Investigative Interviewing Research Group to explore the challenges faced by interviewers’ and interpreters’ collaboration and support them within the various difficulties in which they function. A short educational video on Interpreters in Forensic Interviews of Children (IFIC) will be developed based on interviewers and interpreters responses on our survey as well as a review of the literature. It is expected that IFIC will have a practical value by complementing practitioners’ training. Interviewers and interpreters may watch IFIC during training or importantly prior an interview reminding them the basic principles of their collaboration. Perhaps the most important benefit for practitioners its IFIC’s potential impact on the quality of police interviews with children.


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Day 2 – Thursday 27th June, 2019

Auditorium: Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Trond Myklebust

Abstract Title:

KEYNOTE: Capturing intelligence and witness accounts: Working with memory to optimize information gain

Authors: Lorraine Hope

Abstract:
Solving crimes, mitigating security threats, and protecting the public often relies on interviewers obtaining detailed information or intelligence about what happened – or what is about to happen. Effective interviews with witnesses, victims, suspects and sources that elicit accurate and detailed information are crucial and the onus is on the interviewer to maximize both the quality and quantity of information obtained. Critical to that skill is an understanding of memory – and an appreciation of the reasons why even entirely cooperative interviewees do not spontaneously report all the information they know. In this keynote, I will examine some of these reasons from a memory perspective and discuss techniques and tools developed in our lab, in collaboration with practitioners, to maximise information gain. Finally, I will reflect on how far we’ve come in terms of injecting psychological science into the task of debriefing cooperative sources and consider how researchers and practitioners can most effectively work together going forward.

Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Feni Kontogianni

Abstract Title:

“Tell me more about this…”: Seeking for the truth with follow-up questions

Author: Feni Kontogianni, Lorraine Hope, Paul J. Taylor, Aldert Vrij, & Fiona Gabbert

Abstract:
After obtaining a report about an event, interviewers might ask follow-up questions to clarify or elicit further details. However, the information provided in response to such questions may not be as accurate as spontaneously reported information. Across two experiments, we tested the efficacy of open-ended questions following an initial report provided with the timeline technique about a multi-perpetrator event, by examining the amount and accuracy of the reported information. Results from the first experiment (N = 50) show that although follow-up questions elicited new information, the accuracy of the responses was not as high as the initially reported information (60% vs 83%). In the second experiment (N = 60), we examined the use of pre-questioning instructions to improve accuracy. Half of the participants were reminded to avoid guessing, to feel free to withhold an answer, and to consider the level of detail in their answers (i.e. provide general or specific details). However, the accuracy of their responses did not improve relative to a control group. Again, responses to follow-up questions were not as accurate as the initial report (75% vs 87.5%). Results are discussed in relation to strategic reporting and the use of follow-up questions in applied settings.

Abstract Title:

Exploring the impact of question types and order on witnesses’ confidence.

Authors: Alessandra Caso, Fiona Gabbert, & Gordon Wright

Abstract:
In order to facilitate memory retrieval, the types of question asked in an interview should follow a hierarchical order, for example a Free Recall should be asked before closed questions. In this study we investigated the impact that question type and order has on memory confidence. Participants watched a video, after which participants in Group A answered a set of closed questions, and subsequently provided a Free Recall. In contrast, participants in Groups B and C, first provided a Free Recall, and then answered the set of closed questions. We further manipulated the order of closed questions for Group B and C; in particular participants in Group B answered questions related to information reported in the Free Recall, before answering questions unrelated to the information reported in the Free Recall. On the contrary participants in Group C answered unrelated questions before answering related questions. Confidence for participants in all groups was measured after the video, and also after each recall test (in two occasions for Group A, and in three occasions in Group B, and C). Changes in overall confidence as a function of question types and order will be analysed, as well as confidence-accuracy calibration. Implications will be discussed.

Conference Room 2 (Room 251)
Chair: Minhwan Jang

Abstract Title:

Exploring Prisoners’ and Laypersons’ Perceptions of Police Interrogation Tactics and Evidence

Author: Minhwan Jang, Timothy J. Luke, Pär Anders Granhag, Aldert Vrij, & Mooel Kim

Abstract:
Without evidence, humans are prone to making erroneous decisions. Thus, in the legal system, evidence plays the most vital role. Due to the wrongful convictions caused by false confessions or coercive interrogation methods, much research has been done about interrogation and interviewing tactics. Nevertheless, there is a relative paucity of empirical research on the potential relationship between evidence perception and interrogation tactics. Then, we created a new interrogation tactic classification consisting of five domains with 27 interrogation tactics based on the crucial legal elements—evidentiality, substantiation, and crime-relevance. With Study 1 (N = 59), we aimed to examine how prisoners and suspects think about the 27 tactics. We predicted that the participants’ evidence perception (how much evidence an interrogator holds) would be higher when evidence-related (evidential) tactics are adopted. The result supported our prediction. In Study 2 (N = 117), we also intended to explore how laypeople would perceive the same interrogation tactics, indicating the same trend. However, the comparison between the groups revealed that—in some interrogation tactics—their evidence perceptions were significantly different. Conducting exploratory analyses, we also found that the two group’s perceptions of 11 types of evidence and the right to silence were significantly different.

Abstract Title:

When and How are Lies Told? The Role of Culture and Metacognition in Intelligence-Gathering Interviews.

Authors: Haneen Deeb, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Brianna L. Verigin, & Steven M. Kleinman

Abstract:
Deceptive suspects tend to tell embedded lies within interviews. In intelligence-gathering interviews, suspects may need to disclose information about multiple events. In two studies, we examined the metacognitions and actual responses of lie-tellers from low- and high-context cultures concerning when they would report a deceptive event in an interview and how consistent they are in the amount of detail they provide. Participants were asked to think of one deceptive and three truthful events. Study 1 (N = 100) was an online study that examined participants’ plans (metacognitions) about where they would position the deceptive event when interviewed and the amount of detail they would provide for the deceptive and truthful events. Study 2 (N = 126) involved interviewing participants to examine whether lie-tellers’ metacognitions match their actual responses. In both studies, participants planned and embedded the deceptive event in the middle of the interview. Participants were consistent in the amount of detail they provided about the truthful and deceptive events, and their post-interview self-reports matched this consistency strategy more than their pre-interview self-reports. The results did not reveal any differences between low- and high-context participants. The implications of these findings to practitioners and for future research are discussed.

Conference Room 3 (Room 260)
Chair: Nicolas Pietrasanta

Abstract Title:

Use of open-ended questions as an interviewer’s performance measure. Evaluation of a Chilean investigative interviewer training program.

Author: Nicolas Pietrasanta

Abstract:
With the recent enactment of Videotaped Interviewees Law in Chile, training people prepared for interviewing alleged children victims of sexual and violent crimes has become one of the most critical challenges in order to achieve a correct implementation of this reform. So far, different training programmes have been designed and executed considering scientific evidence, national and international experience and the characteristics of the Chilean justice system, culture, and society. This research aims to provide evidence about the effectiveness of the experience developed by a partnership among the Prosecutors Office and Fundación Amparo y Justicia, where 53 interviewers (prosecutors, assistant lawyers, and professionals of Witnesses and Victims Assistance Unit) were trained.
The study examined the interviewer’s performance analyzing the proportion of open-ended questions on the substantive phase in two 15-minutes online simulated interviews -before and after coursing the training programme. In both instances, the role of children was interpreted by trained actors with a detailed script of the case. As an indicator of training’s learning, it was expected that the use of open-ended questions would increase at the end of the training.
The main results show statically significant differences in the performance of the interviewers before and after their formation. The interviewers increased in 30 percent the use of open-ended prompts (from 0.17 to 0.47), while the use of specific/directive, option-posing, and leading questions had decreased considerably (-0.13, -0.14 and -0.03 respectively).
As a conclusion it is possible to affirm that the training allowed interviewers to increase the use of open-ended questions, adhering to an international best-practice guideline. It is expected that this could allow to increase the confidence in the training programme among public institutions involved in the law’s implementation.
Among some future challenges identified, highlights the need to incorporate more useful evidence to improve the training programme. According to this, in future researches we expect to analyze the interviewer’s adherence to NICHD’s Protocol phases, the incorporation of a third performance’s measure during the continuous formation and eventually -if it is possible to develop field studies-, analyze the quality of the information obtained by

Abstract Title:

How should caregivers respond to a child’s disclosure?

Authors: Greg Dear & Georgia Williams

Abstract:
A family member, particularly the mother, is the most common person to whom a child first discloses abuse. A family member questioning the child can impact on the reliability of the child’s subsequent memories of the abuse and consequently jeopardise subsequent investigations. We conducted a Delphi Study to determine the consensus among leading researchers in investigative interviewing on how family members should respond to a child’s disclosure in order to best meet the needs of investigators while also meeting the needs of the child. This study involved four iterations of data collection (surveys and online interviews), obtaining both qualitative and rating-scale data. From these data, we developed a model to guide family members in how to respond to a child’s disclosure. At the centre of the model is the critical importance of resisting any urges to question the child or to discover more details about the alleged events. The final stage of our study was to present the model to the researchers who participated in the study. This final stage commenced just before the submission of this abstract, but early responses indicate support for the model (consensus). This final phase will be completed in time for the conference.

Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Laura Farrugia

Abstract Title:

What they do and what they should do: The Appropriate Adult in mentally disordered suspect interviews in England and Wales.

Author: Laura Farrugia & Fiona Gabbert

Abstract:
Recent research has highlighted that police officers perceive the investigative interviewing of mentally disordered suspects as difficult and problematic. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act (1984) attempt to provide provisions to assist police officers in completing this task. The role of the Appropriate Adult is one such provision. Their role is to safeguard the vulnerable suspect, but also to observe whether the interview is being conducted fairly and to facilitate communication. Previous research has highlighted that Appropriate Adults tend to be passive in their role. However, such research is scant and dated in nature. Consequently, the current study aimed to explore the role of the Appropriate Adult within mentally disordered suspect interviews in order to examine when they actually intervene and when they should intervene. In total, 27 investigative interviews conducted with mentally disordered suspects, implicated in high-stake crimes, and involving the use of an Appropriate Adult were analysed. Results suggested that Appropriate Adults remain largely passive in their roles, with significantly more missed interventions by the Appropriate Adult than appropriate interventions. However, when Appropriate Adults did intervene, these were significantly more likely to be appropriate rather than inappropriate interventions. These findings have implications for the safeguarding of vulnerable suspects.

Abstract Title:

A national study of investigative interviews of adolescents and adults with disabilities as alleged victims of violence and sexual abuse

Authors: Tone Hee Åker

Abstract:
There is a growing body of literature describing how different interviewee factors such as poor language-, memory- and communication skills affects information revealed when questioning individuals with disabilities (IWD). Despite this, few studies have described how investigative interviews of adults and adolescents with disabilities are performed. In addition, studies addressing violence and sexual abuse against IWD are scarce, especially cases carried forward to prosecution.
The aim for the current study was to analyse interview strategies applied in terms of question-types used in actual investigative interviews of IWD in violence and sexual abuse cases. The interviews were conducted by the police in Norwegian Barnahus between 2015-2017 and followed a model implemented in Norway when interviewing vulnerable witnesses, the Norwegian Sequential Interview model.
Results shows that the major part of the questions used is option-posing- and directive questions, which is associated with the risk of contaminating and limiting IWD’s informativeness. Additionally, a low number of open-ended and cued recall questions were used in the interviews. Forensic applications of the findings will be discussed.

Abstract Title:

Managing Investigative Interviews with Vulnerable Suspects- Do Interview Advisers actually understand vulnerability?

Authors: Martin Vaughan, Rebecca Milne & Julie Cherryman

Abstract:
Introduction
Although the investigative interviewing skills of police officers in the UK have been subject to much scrutiny there appears to be a real lack of research surrounding the use of Interview Managers when interviewing vulnerable suspects. Interview Managers/Strategists/Tier 5 (IM) are a dedicated role within major crime investigations. Their role is to manage, advise and co-ordinate interviews in serious, complex or major investigations. They provide strategic guidance to Senior Officers and Interviewing Officers on interview related matters ensuring that investigative interview processes adopted with vulnerable suspects are both ethical and effective. The study aimed to garner the perceptions of IM concerning the barriers/challenges when creating strategies for vulnerable suspects.

Method
Questionnaires were circulated within 17 UK Police Forces from different geographical areas including rural and urban policing. The quantitative and qualitative data responses were analysed and coded for themes and current practices of the IM during their deployment when dealing with vulnerable suspects in high stake investigations such as homicide, terrorism, rape and child abuse. Perceptions of their role and perceptions of their understanding of vulnerability were examined before presenting a conclusion.

Results and discussion
Full results will be presented and discussed.

Conference Room 2 (Room 251)
Chair: Alejandra De La Fuente Vilar

Abstract Title:

The Burden of Unfulfilled Expectations: Challenges of Interviewing Witnesses who Fail to Cooperate

Author: Alejandra De La Fuente Vilar, Robert Horselenberg, Lorraine Hope, Leif A. Strömwall, Sara Landström & Peter J. van Koppen

Abstract:
Individuals who witness a crime are expected to cooperate and disclose information if interviewed by the authorities. However, police report frequently encountering witnesses who are unwilling to become involved in the investigative process. Despite the challenge lack of witness cooperation represents for investigators, it has received little scientific attention.
We examined the extent to which investigator’s expectations of witness cooperation affect interviewing strategies and questions used in an investigative interview. Participants (N = 110) interviewed either a perceived cooperative, uncooperative or a neutral witness. Participants as investigators interviewed a confederate who acted as an uncooperative witness.
Data is currently being analysed and will be presented at the conference. We predict that interviewer’s a priori beliefs of witness cooperation will activate a process of confirmation bias, by which investigators will use more closed, leading, and probing questions (vs. open free and cued recall) when expecting low levels of cooperation (vs. higher levels of cooperation) from the witness. Similarly, investigators will use more accusatorial over information-gathering interviewing strategies as expectations of the level of witness cooperation decreases.
Understanding how interviewer’s expectations of witness cooperation affect information gathering during investigative interviews is relevant to inform interviewing practice that promotes cooperation and facilitates disclosure.

Abstract Title:

Examining turning points within investigative interviews

Authors: Kirk Luther, Christopher Kelly, Steven Watson, Greg Yanicki, Julie Jackson, Paul Taylor & Fiona Gabbert

Abstract:
One promising area for improving interviewing practice that has received limited attention is the concept of turning points. Turning points refer to events, behaviours, or actions that change the direction of an interaction toward, or away from, achieving the interviewer’s goals. Druckman (2001) developed a framework of turning points that includes three key stages: precipitants (i.e., factors that trigger a change in process), departures (i.e., reaction to precipitants), and consequences (i.e., actions to move toward or away from the goal). These ideas can be used to better understand interactions within an investigative interview. For example, turning points may be associated with positive (e.g., an uncooperative interviewee becoming cooperative) or negative (e.g., a cooperative interviewee becoming uncooperative) consequences. Using a sample of 29 transcripts, we inductively developed and tested a novel coding scheme to identify turning points through interviewer and suspect behaviours. Specifically, we identified topic changes, evidence presentation, and challenges by the investigators, inconsistencies, shifts in behavior, and denials or admissions by the suspects as possible indicators of turning points. Implications for interviewing research and practice will be discussed.

Abstract Title:

Why and how suspect resistance manifests itself within interrogation setting

Authors: Michel St-Yves, Andréanne Bergeron & Nadien Deslauriers-Varin

Abstract:
Suspect’s confession is an important component of successful police investigations and researchers have contributed to the expansion of knowledge on the subject. Nevertheless, even if investigators have the best techniques, the resistance of the suspect is a central element to consider. Resistance will be discussed based on two research results. In the first research, we expose five different profiles of motivations to denial during police interrogation according to a survey on 111 individuals who have been convicted – despite the fact that they have not confessed their crime – and incarcerated in a Canadian penitentiary. The result of the second study is based on 19 suspects who confessed their crime after a polygraph examination. The effectiveness of investigators’ strategies for overcoming suspects’ resistance was compared to the types of resistance that suspects used to counter the investigators’ strategies. Findings are discussed in light of the literature on crime confession and resistance.

Abstract Title:

Overcoming suspect resistance during police interrogation: Has research reached its limits?

Authors: Andréanne Bergeron & Michel St-Yves

Abstract:
Police interrogation research helped to better understand the mechanisms influencing confession and denial, and contributed to develop more ethical and effective practices, while significantly reducing the risk of false confessions and miscarriages of justice. Despite the use of good practices, “no comment” and no confession rates remain high (around 50%), mostly due to the inability to overcome the suspect resistance. Moreover, many strategies used by investigators are still controversial and are subject to criticism because they are either unethical or “coercive”, or they create a breeding ground for false confessions. In this presentation, two fundamental questions will be discussed: 1) Have we reached the limits of what is possible to do to overcome the resistance of a suspect; 2) Is research still able to fill the gap on that matter? An overview of the literature on non-confessor profiles and on the different types of resistance will be presented, along with the research efforts to improve interrogation practices and outcomes. The result of this overview will help identify the need for future research.

Conference Room 3 (Room 260)
Chair: Greg Dear

Abstract Title:

Practitioner Case Study – Investigative interviews in civil law proceedings.

Author: Greg Dear

Abstract:
Psychologists who undertake assessments of litigants and present expert evidence on their assessment findings use a variety of methods to collect their data (psychological tests, behavioural observations, interviews, file reviews, etc.). Information collected from interviewing litigants and other potential witnesses is central to the assessment process, and often discovers new evidence (assumed facts) to be admitted into proceedings. I will present three case studies that demonstrate the importance of investigative interviewing methods in areas other than criminal investigations. The probative value of interview data is just as important in these contexts as it is in a criminal investigation. Case 1: interviewing a child who is the subject of proceedings regarding alleged neglect and a need for protection (Children’s Court). Case 2: interviewing a parent who is a party in a custody dispute (Family Court). Case 3: interviewing a litigant claiming a compensable personal injury. In each case, the importance of obtaining free narratives and other forms of un-led information was critical for the probative value of my evidence: both the report I filed at court and my subsequent cross-examination. Of great concern is the fact that most psychologists who do this work are not trained in investigative interviewing methods.

Abstract Title:

Practitioner Case Study – Assessing the reliability of abuse allegations in a recent Canadian case

Authors: Laura Melnyk Gribble

Abstract:
This case study illustrates how an expert witness in the investigative interviewing of children evaluates case materials to address the reliability sexual abuse allegations.
I was retained as an expert witness in a 2018 Canadian criminal case in which a father was accused of sexually abusing his 5-year-old son and thus lost access to his son. The Crown withdrew the criminal charges shortly after my submission of an affidavit summarizing my planned testimony. Several weeks later, I was called to testify in family court on this matter. In his decision, the Chief Justice ruled that on the balance of probabilities the abuse did not occur and restored the father’s access.
According to his grandmother, the child produced a statement that she interpreted as sexual touching involving his father. This was followed by two informal home interviews and a formal investigative interview with a social worker.
As is best practice, the investigative interview was video-recorded. Importantly, both of the home interviews were also video-recorded, allowing a unique opportunity to assess the context surrounding the allegations.
In my presentation, I will discuss how manifestations of interviewer bias in both the informal and investigative interviews significantly compromised the reliability of the statements.

Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Evelina Medin

Abstract Title:

Long Symposia – Interviewing children who disclose sexual trauma – practice points from London’s new multidisciplinary service.

Author: Evelina Medin, Rhianna Watts, Danielle Jackson, Rachel Falk, Sam Tarling, Lisa Isaacson, Janine Stevenson, Victoria Mattison, Anna Churcher-Clarke, & Fabienne Palmer

Abstract:
London services for children who disclose sexual trauma have experience a major overhaul in the past few years. A 2015 review
commissioned by NHS England identified a number of problems with the current care and legal pathways including the investigative interviewing process. The review found that investigative interviews showed poor compliance with guidelines, and involved practices which had negative impacts on the child’s wellbeing, the quality of their testimony, and the evidential value of the interview.
Two key services were developed following the review: Children & Young Person’s (CYP) Havens and The Lighthouse. CYP Havens provides forensic/medical examinations, psychological therapy and advocacy to children who have experienced recent sexual abuse, assault or rape. The Lighthouse operates an integrated service which houses police, social care and health care representatives under one roof to support children and young people who have experience sexual trauma.
The Forensic Interview Psychology (FIP) Service is operated jointly across two sites. The first of its kind in the UK, the FIP Service was developed to improve London’s child investigative interview pathway by drawing on international best practice models. The FIP Service uses a multidisciplinary approach to provide a child-centred service designed to give children the best opportunity to tell us what happened. Our team consist of Clinical Psychologists, Police Liaison Officers and an expert
advisory independent interviewer. By focusing on making children feel safe during the interview, we hope to give children a better experience, and enable them to give a more comprehensive account.
The FIP service has moved into its second year of operation, which is focused on expanding and sharing the learning that has taken place. Our symposium aims to:
• Present our service, interviewing model and preliminary outcomes;
• Reflect on multidisciplinary research and practice implications of activities to date; and,
• Facilitate wider discussion of these between the community of investigative interviewing researchers and practitioners.
Drawing on our expertise in child development and trauma, and skillset as reflective scientist-practitioners, we will present research and offer perspectives relating to a range of internationally-relevant themes and dilemmas concerning child investigative interviewing practices. These include interviewer experiences of vicarious traumatisation and tensions within dual roles; differences in perspectives within the multidisciplinary team; and conflicts between criminal justice demands and the paramount rights of the child. We will also highlight key challenges and practical lessons learned about interview preparation; verbal and nonverbal interviewing techniques; use of clinical/therapy skills in the interview; and pursuing justice for children within the UK’s adversarial criminal justice system.
Five substantive papers from different disciplinary perspectives will be presented as a structure and catalyst for discussion:
1. Investigative interviewing led by Clinical Psychologists – a service for children who disclose sexual trauma;
2. ‘Our job is to listen with our ears’ – preparing children for interview;
3. In the control room, in the court room – the view from the other side;
4. Vicarious trauma in investigative interviewing: reflections on our roles;
5. ‘Two hats one service’: an interplay of working cultures in the investigative interview process.

Conference Room 2 (Room 251)
Chair: Galit Nahari

Abstract Title:

Urgent issues and prospects in verbal lie detection: A message from researchers and practitioners in the field.

Author: Galit Nahari, Tzachi Ashkenazi, Ronald P. Fisher, Par-Anders Granhag, Irit Hershkowitz, Jaume Masip, Ewout H. Meijer, Zvi Nisin, Nadav Sarid, Paul J. Taylor, Bruno Verschuere & Aldert Vrij

Abstract:
Since its introduction into the field of deception detection, the verbal channel has become a rapidly growing area of research. The basic assumption is that liars differ from truth tellers in their verbal behaviour, making it possible to classify them by inspecting their verbal accounts. However, as noted in conferences and in private communication between researchers, the field of verbal lie detection faces several challenges that merit focused attention. Nine researchers and three practitioners with experience in credibility assessments gathered for 3 days of discussion at Bar-Ilan University (Israel) in the first international verbal lie detection workshop, with the mission of promoting solutions for urgent issues in the field. The primary session of the workshop took place the morning of the first day. In this session, each of the participants had up to 10 min to deliver a brief message, using just one slide. Researchers were asked to answer the question: ‘In your view, what is the most urgent, unsolved question/issue in verbal lie detection?’ Similarly, practitioners were asked: ‘As a practitioner, what question/issue do you wish verbal lie detection research would address?’ The issues raised served as the basis for the discussions that were held throughout the workshop. In the current presentation I will present several messages to researchers in the field, designed to deliver the insights, decisions, and conclusions resulting from the workshop discussions.

Abstract Title:

Detecting lies: Instructing people to ignore nonverbal cues is not sufficient to improve deception accuracy.

Authors: Glynis Bogaard & Ewout H. Meijer

Abstract:
Researchers pleaded to police forces to shift their focus from nondiagnostic nonverbal cues to the more diagnostic verbal cues. As a result, some interrogation instruction manuals include information to refrain from making credibility judgments based on nonverbal cues. Whether this sole instruction works to improve lie detection, was investigated in two studies. In study 1, participants were asked to judge the veracity of eight statements, four were truthful and four deceptive. To assess their veracity, participants either received (1) no instruction, (2) the instruction to ignore nonverbal cues or (3) to ignore nonverbal cues but to focus on verbal cues instead. In the second study, condition 3 was changed to include an audio only condition. Results of both studies showed that participants had difficulties ignoring nonverbal cues, even when instructed. Overall accuracy was around chance level and did not differ between groups. However, people were better at detecting truths than lies. Also, truths were better detected in the audio group than in the other groups. In sum, the simple instruction not to focus on these nonverbal cues when making deception judgments is not a sufficient or adequate strategy to improve lie detection accuracy.

Abstract Title:

Detection of Deception in Corruption Cases in Taiwan

Authors: Yee San Teoh, Cheng-Yi Chuang, Kuan-Ju Huang, Yu-Wen Wang & Jing-Yi Chuang

Abstract:
The Agency Against Corruption (AAC) in Taiwan is responsible for investigating one of the most challenging types of cases in the criminal justice system – corruption cases that often lack paper trail and hard evidence, leaving investigators with very little evidence to work with. From the perspective of AAC investigators, deception detection during interrogation might be a useful tactic against uncooperative suspects. However, field research and studies on deception and lie-detection in the Mandarin language are extremely scarce. The present study examined video-recordings of actual interrogations of suspects in cases investigated by the AAC. Due to the lack of a standardized protocol for the video-recording of interrogations in Taiwan, camera angles and video quality varied significantly. Where possible, we coded the nonverbal and verbal behaviors of both the suspect and interviewer. We coded widely established verbal and nonverbal cues to deception, and the corresponding interviewer behaviors. We also attempted to establish ground truth using the available evidence, investigator judgments and court verdicts. In cases where there was clear evidence that the suspect was not truthful about a detail (e.g. surveillance video that indicated the suspect lied about his/her alibi), we examined within-individual differences in truthful and deceptive behaviors.

Abstract Title:

The Reversed Question Protocol: Assessing its Applicability to a Criminal Paradigm

Authors: Louise Jupe, Aldert Vrij, Sharon Leal, Galit Nahari, Andrei Viziteu, Rachel Smith & Faisal Al Menaiya

Abstract:
In the current study, we aim to further the research on the Reversed Questioning Protocol, introduced by Jupe, Vrij, Leal, Nahari, Cooper and Gill (2019), which was the first study to look at strategically asking liars and truth tellers to unexpectedly design their own interview questions, to be asked reciprocally. The findings from Jupe et al., (2019) showed that differences emerged in the type of questions truth tellers and liars provided when designing their own interviews. The initial RQP study (which was based on an identity deception scenario), showed that truth tellers asked more questions than liars, more process questions than liars and more open questions than liars. It was suggested that this is in line with liars
‘keep it simple’ strategies and truth tellers ‘tell it all’ strategies. To further the research into the RQP, the current study applies the RQP to a criminal paradigm; that is, we wish to see if the same discrimination can be found when applied to a criminal event.

Abstract Title:

“He went that way!”: Consistent and detailed eyewitness deceptions

Authors: Charlotte Hudson, Aldert Vrij, Lucy Akehurst, & Lorraine Hope

Abstract:
The Self-Administered Interview (SAI) is a written eyewitness recall tool that results in the elicitation of more information from cooperative, truthful witnesses than written free recall (WFR) formats. To date, SAI research has solely examined the accounts of people who are reporting truthfully from memory. In the current experiment, truthful and fabricating participants (N = 128) either completed a SAI or a WFR for a witnessed crime event (Time 1). After a delay of one week, participants were interviewed about the same crime using the Structured Interview Protocol (Time 2). Truth tellers provided more detail than liars at both Times 1 and 2 across interview conditions. Truth tellers and liars reported a similar amount of detail when using the SAI, however liars reported fewer details than truth tellers when completing the WFR. There was no difference in the amount of repetitions, reminiscences, omissions or contradictions for truth tellers and liars. In sum, although the SAI is effective in eliciting information as an initial eyewitness reporting tool, no benefits for the detection of deception were demonstrated. Reasons for this will be discussed. The preregistration for this study can be found at osf.io/y4hfw/.

Conference Room 3 (Room 260)
Chair: Christopher Kelly

Abstract Title:

What Happens in Vegas (is Shared in Stavern)

Author: Christopher Kelly, Michael McClary & Debbie Frankfort

Abstract:
Popular and scholarly attention regarding questioning strategies in the criminal justice system has primarily focused on police interviewing of suspects, witnesses, and victims in order to gather evidence. The focus on police has produced a wealth of knowledge regarding what may broadly be termed forensic or investigative interviewing, but it has been to the exclusion of other actors ‘downstream’ in the justice process. The proposed short symposium will explore an entirely new setting and population—the Gang Special Investigations Unit (GSIU) of the Clark County Detention Center (CCDC), a division of the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department (LVMPD).
The presenters in this 60-minute symposium reflect the practitioner-researcher collaboration that is central to the iIIRG’s mission. Namely, the first presentation will be from a former Assistant Sheriff, Michael McClary, who will introduce himself and his agency to the iIIRG, describing his experiences as a practitioner who has since begun working as a conduit between LVMPD and the research and training worlds. The second presenter, Christopher Kelly, is an academic researcher and long-standing iIIRG member who has been studying corrections-based interviews for several years and will present a content analysis of them.

Abstract Title:

The Impact of Interview Training and Personality Characteristics on Investigative Interviewing Performance

Authors: Davut Akca, Joseph Eastwood, Charlene Di danieli & Matthew Shane

Abstract:
In this study, we examined the impact of interview training and individual differences on the investigative interviewing performance of policing students. Participants (N = 40) first completed an interview aptitudes scale and the big five personality test and conducted a mock interview in a laboratory setting. They then received a 3-hour training session, in small groups consisting of 4-11 participants, which covered both theoretical and practical concepts related to effective interviewing. Each participant then conducted a second mock interview post-training with a different interviewee. The content of each pre and post-training interview was transcribed and the performance of participants is currently being determined through four different measures: witness’ perceptions of interviewer performance, the amount of information elicited by the interviewer, interviewer behaviour during the interview (e.g., rapport-building, question types used), and appropriateness of questioning. Upon completion of data coding, a series of analyses will be conducted to identify the impact of training and individual differences on interview performance. Findings will help police departments develop more efficient training programs and give evidence-based decisions in the recruitment of investigative interviewers.

Abstract Title:

Analysts’ Interaction with Lawyers and Investigators in Witness and Suspect Interviews in Complex International Criminal Investigations

Authors: Christian Axboe Nielsen

Abstract:
Complex international criminal investigations such as those conducted by UN ad hoc tribunals and the International Criminal Court (ICC) routinely involve the investigation of crimes that took place over long periods of time and were committed by hundreds or even thousands of perpetrators belonging to various, military, police and civilian organizations and institutions. The scope of the investigations often requires specific historical, political and linguistic knowledge and entails the analysis of extremely large amounts of documentation. During the investigations phase, analysts frequently attend and participate together with lawyers and investigators in interviews of witnesses and suspects belonging to perpetrator organizations. The blend of professional backgrounds and approaches can yield considerable advantages but also gives rise to certain tensions that have to be navigated astutely. Based on extensive experience working at both the UN International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) and the ICC, I will summarize lessons and best practices learned from such interviews.

Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Ruther, M.

Abstract Title:

Implications for investigative interviewing: Empathy and emotional valence in the recall of negative episodic memory using a validated memory task.

Authors: Ruther, M.; Pankhurst, G.; Burne, P.; Harcourt, B.; Underhill, O.; Smulders, T.V.; & Robertson, B-A.

Abstract:
The objective behind all investigative interviews is to retrieve episodic memory through the accounts given by interviewees. The original events may be traumatic in the case of many crimes. This experimental study looked at the effects of emotion on episodic memory using a What-Where-When memory test. This test involves analysing what is remembered about an episode, where it occurred and when it happened (Holland & Smulders, 2011), replicating information that is routinely sought within forensic interviews. Participants (n=46) experienced two events separated by a two-hour interval. On each event they were asked to find some specific images from a stack of photocards (n=30) of varying emotional valence: positive, neutral or negative to simulate emotionality within a forensic interview. These were then placed by participants at specified locations within a forensic interview suite. Exploring long-term memory requires that different phases of testing are separated by delay intervals. During the second two-hour interval, participants completed a variety of psychometric and memory tests. They then completed a free recall task to identify remembered images, where those images were located and in which one of the two events they were identified and moved. This is the first time that the Real-World What-Where-When task has been used to measure emotional attributes of episodic memory and results confirm the task is sensitive to emotional valence and is appropriate for use in forensic applications. Results will be discussed in terms of elements of forensic interviewing practice including empathy, the impact of emotional valence on memorability, and emotional processing deficits (Alexithymia).

Abstract Title:

Does sexual assault victim’s intoxication state affect the quality of investigative interviews? – An analysis of real police interviews in the UK.

Authors: Ching-Yu Huang, Laura Sakalauskaite, Christina Prokic, Lauren Mills, Terri Cole, & Robert Cooper

Abstract:
Rape and sexual assault are difficult crimes to tackle due to their private nature. A disconcertingly high proportion (91.4%) of rape allegations were lost during police investigation in England and Wales in 2017 (ONS, 2018). The physical evidence can only assist to establish whether the intercourse happen or not, but not the presence or absence of consent. Thus, police interview plays an especially critical part in securing evidence for such investigations. Moreover, victim’s intoxication may increase victim blaming (Venema, 2016) and thus decrease their perceived credibility by the police investigators (Goodman-Delahunty & Graham, 2011), and even affect how police officers use different types of questions during the interviewees (Powell, Hughes-Scholes & Sharman, 2012). Therefore, the current study examines 21 real sexual assault police interview transcripts in order to ascertain if victims’ state of intoxication affect police officers’ types of questions used in the interview as well as the informativeness of the victims during the interview. The results will be analysed in terms of types of questions adopted by the interviewers as well as the crime-relevant details provided by the interviewees. Implications will be discussed to suggest ways to improve current practice.

Abstract Title:

How were sexual assault victims being interviewed in the UK? – A descriptive analysis of real police interviews.

Authors: Ching-Yu Huang, Christina Prokic, Laura Sakalauskaite, Lauren Mills, Terri Cole & Robert Cooper

Abstract:
In England and Wales, rape conviction rate has decreased by 4.9 % since 2017 (Crown Prosecution Service, 2018). Rape and sexual assault are difficult crimes to tackle due to their private nature. Due to its private nature, rape case investigations are often down to “words against words”. Therefore, the quality of police interview practice plays a pivotal role in securing evidence for such investigations. In order to examine the quality of the police interview practice, the current study examines 21 interview transcripts from rape complainants (M age= 36.37, SD = 14.75, range = 18- 69) to assess the level of police officers’ (N =14) adherence to of investigative interviewing best practice guidelines. The interview transcripts were evaluated on the following areas: (1) proportion of interview question types, (2) interviewing skills, (3) adherence to the interview prerequisites checklist in the ”A” and ”C” phase of the PEACE model. The most frequent used utterances were the option-posing (M= 34.97%) and directive (M= 24.59%). The inappropriate utterances presence was low (M= 4.52%), and adherence to the interview prerequisites checklist was (M= 47.23%). Findings will be discussed regarding its potential effects on evidence gathering to shed light upon ways to improve future practice.

Abstract Title:

‘Let someone else say that’: forensic linguistic approaches to witness narratives.

Authors: Patricia Canning

Abstract:
On 15th April 1989, ninety-six people were killed in a crush at a football stadium in Hillsborough, UK. Investigations included self-taken police witness statements, many of which documented numerous references to fans drinking, buying or carrying alcohol, in striking contrast to fans’ accounts. In the pursuit of justice, an Independent Panel (2012) reviewed over 450,000 documents and exposed an institutional ‘review and alteration’ of witness testimonies that systematically blamed fans for the crush. These manipulated re-tellings cemented the ‘hooliganisation’ of Liverpool fans in the public consciousness. Using the Hillsborough data as a starting point, this paper examines ways in which linguistic features and patterns in witness statements can offer insights into the angle of telling and the function of resulting narratives. It focuses specifically on negation as an indicator of (undocumented) questioning and probing, and thus, topic control. It raises questions about the kinds of inferences that may be drawn not only from what is claimed did happen, but what is claimed did not happen. It concludes by arguing for the importance of establishing collaborative relationships between police and linguists to safeguard the witness’s evidential story, but also the police interviewer in what is undeniably an interactional and multi-vocal process.

Conference Room 2 (Room 251)
Chair: Nathanael E.J Sumampouw

Abstract Title:

Confirmation bias in police investigators working with CSA cases.

Authors: Nathanael E.J Sumampouw, Corine de Ruiter, & Henry Otgaar

Abstract:
Police investigators are expected to objectively examine evidence: eyewitness’ statements, suspect statement, and technical evidence. Therefore, professionals must be able to dissociate themselves from extraneous context and other influences which potentially interfere. However, forensic experts such as police investigators are prone to confirmation bias. Confirmation bias is expected when forensic experts evaluate and integrate various types of evidence. We conducted an experimental study in which police investigators were assigned to a bias versus no bias condition. All participants received a case vignette on CSA in which statements of a young child concerning abuse were included. In the bias condition, police interviewers received extra domain-irrelevant information in the form of a witness statement which the child was described as a naughty child had often lied about being abused in the past. The other group did not receive this information. Following this, the police officers had to answer questions concerning the credibility of the statements and which type of questions they would ask in a follow-up interview. It was expected that the bias group perceived the statements as less credible and was least likely to use open invitations in follow-up interviews.

Abstract Title:

Safe Space: The Impact of Medium versus Location on Self-Disclosure

Authors: Christina Winters, Paul J. Taylor, & Kirk Luther

Abstract:
Recent research has examined the effects of contextual manipulation on information yield in investigative interviews. Security vetting relies on interviewees providing full and accurate self-disclosure to personal questions about their history, lifestyle, and attitudes. Vetting interviews are carried out in different locations, but little is known about the role of context on interviewees’ self-disclosure. Our previous research explored students’ self-disclosure across a variety of contexts (i.e., Home, Office, Coffee Shop, Online), and found that those interviewed in their home endorsed more questions and disclosed more details compared to the other locations. Our current study expands on these findings by examining feelings of place attachment as a possible mediator of self-disclosure. We used a 2 (Location: Home, Office) x 2 (Medium: Face-to-face, Online) between-subjects design with an adult community sample (N = 128). The number of questions endorsed per security topic and the number of details disclosed per security topic were measured. Details were quantified using a modified adaptation of the Assessment Criteria Indicative of Deception coding scheme. We hypothesized that Home interviewees (regardless of medium) will endorse more questions and self-disclose more details than Office interviewees.

Abstract Title:

An Investigation of Alternative Questions

Authors: Kathleen Hyland & Marguerite Ternes

Abstract:
Interrogations in North America are informed by the Reid Model of Interrogations (Inbau et al., 2011), which is controversial as some suggest the model may elicit false confessions. The present study investigates the Reid model’s use of alternative questions, which pose two explanations for criminal acts: a face-saving option or a reprehensible option. For example, an investigator may ask, “Are you a calculated killer, or was it an accident?”
To explore alternative questions, individuals participated in an experimental paradigm adapted from Russano and colleagues (2005). Half of the participants were asked for help by a confederate on a task they were told to complete independently (cheat vs. no cheat condition). Participants were confronted about their guilt either using an open-ended question or a series of alternative questions.
Preliminary results show that when asked, participants will help their partner (i.e., cheat) on tasks and very few deny cheating when confronted. Innocent participants feel extremely pressured to confess, however, none have falsely confessed even after four rounds of the alternative question, “do you always cheat or was this a one-time thing?” So far only one participant initiated cheating. Results will be discussed in terms of their implications to police interrogations.

Abstract Title:

Defence lawyers’ and intermediaries’ assessment of the language used to question a child witness

Authors: Kirsten Hanna & Emily Henderson

Abstract:
While language specialists and legal professionals have voiced concerns about the language used to question child witnesses in the Aotearoa/NZ courts, it is unclear whether both groups share a common understanding of what those language problems are. This study compares five Aotearoa/NZ defence lawyers’ and two England/Wales intermediaries’ perceptions of the developmental (in)appropriateness of the language used to question an 11-year-old witness, based on their assessment of the witness’ anonymised trial transcript. The comparison showed that both groups agreed on the categories of language features that might confuse children, however, intermediaries identified many more instances of problematic language within those categories than lawyers. Training on child language and pre-trial preparation of questions would certainly help lawyers improve the comprehensibility of their questions. However, the implementation of a full intermediary scheme, such as that in England/Wales, probably offers the best prospects for a sustained seachange in questioning practices.

Conference Room 3 (Room 260)
Chair: Sarah Shaffer

Abstract Title:

Realism in HUMINT Research: A New (and Realistic) Paradigm for Examining the Scharff Technique and Similar Interrogative Approaches

Authors: Sarah Shaffer & Jacqueline R. Evans

Abstract:
Previous tests of human intelligence collection, in particular those examining the Scharff technique, have used role-playing paradigms in order to collect information from student participants who memorized key intelligence prior to the interview. As such, these paradigms do not provide a realistic setting in which to examine the effectiveness of interrogation / elicitation approaches. Furthermore, many recommended approaches contained in the Army Field Manual (AFM, 2-22.3) have no empirical basis and yet are frequently used in the field. The current, ongoing (n= 56), study created a realistic situation in which participants were told that they would be participating in a study of group interaction and discussion. Group discussions between groups of participants and a study confederate were interrupted and participants were subsequently separated, and after an isolation period of 5 to 20 minutes, were interviewed using the Scharff technique or one of two recommended AFM approaches, direct questioning or a version of the “We Know All” tactic known as a File and Dossier interview. Participants were then questioned about which fellow participant made comments suggesting plans to participate in a potentially destructive protest event (note, key relevant statements were made by a study confederate during the discussion).

Abstract Title:

Effectiveness of the Scharff Technique in Elicitation in Repeated and Unexpected Interviews

Authors: Sarah Shaffer, Kureva Matuku & Jacqueline R. Evans

Abstract:
Sources in Intelligence settings may be interviewed multiple times by multiple interviewers and with a combination of interview approaches. However, interrogation research largely examines the outcome of a single interview. The current, ongoing (n = 46), study examined the effect of repeated interviewing on information gain and source ability to estimate their information contribution. Consistent with past research, participant sources were given a scenario detailing a planned bombing to learn, asked to plan an interview strategy, and subsequently interviewed using either a direct questioning approach or the Scharff technique. Sources were not told that they would be interviewed a second time. After rating the interview (e.g., their information contribution, and their perception of the knowledge held by the interviewer), sources were told that they had not given enough information and must be interviewed again. All second interviews used a direct approach, and were conducted by a different interviewer than the first. Regardless of interview condition, the second interview yielded more details than the first interview. However, the interviewer was viewed as significantly less knowledgeable after the second interview when participants had received a Scharff interview initially. This perception additionally appeared to lead sources to be more deceptive at interview two.

Abstract Title:

Rapport: What Works in South East Asia?

Authors: Magdalene Ng, Eugene Tee, Fiona Gabbert, & Gordon Wright

Abstract:
Rapport is an influence tactic that has been shown to produce higher levels of self-disclosure in the area of investigative interviews. It has been defined in various ways and is even embedded in different information elicitation techniques. Markers of rapport have been identified based on research in Western societies. They show that individuals in the West do actually adopt particular behaviours (i.e., open body language, active listening, similar interaction styles, mutual interests and respect) when they communicate with those they trust. Nevertheless, whether or not these linguistic and behavioural characteristics work in Western cultures may not translate so well across cultures that have different attributes. Understanding the role of culture and context is vital as the expression and reception of rapport is a manifestation of social constructs. For example, it seems that rather than rational arguments, Malaysians prefer the establishment of relationships, a setting up of the history and position of both the interviewer and interviewee, and even leaving things unsaid. Moreover, contrary to a volume of research that suggest that tough tactics fail and rapport works found that a humanistic style of interviewing did not bode well with suspects from high-context cultures (i.e., they refused to divulge information) compared with those from low-context cultures. Different persuasion techniques may work better in gaining compliance and eliciting information in the East. We conduct a qualitative study of rapport using focus groups in a South East Asian context (Malaysia), a multi-ethnic country. We examine if Malaysians make sense of it any differently from their Western counterparts. Our interests lie in identifying the building blocks of rapport held by our participants. We also capture the socio-cultural nuances that will ultimately advise the way we conduct our forensic interviews.

Abstract Title:

Assessing Mock Victims’ Perception of the Importance of Interviewer Characteristics

Authors: Joseph Eastwood, Davut Akca, Christina Connors, Mark Snow & Quintan Crough

Abstract:
The importance of rapport within investigative interviews, and potential methods for building rapport, has received significant empirical attention. To date, however, limited research has looked at the interaction between interviewer and interviewee characteristics in terms of facilitating effective rapport-building and information elicitation. In the current study, participants (N=150) were first asked to imagine they were a victim of a sexual crime and subsequently reported it to the police. They were told that the police organization was implementing a new procedure whereby victims were able to choose the officer that would conduct their interview. They were asked to list (open-ended) and rate (Likert-scale) the characteristics that they would deem important in their preferred interviewer. Participants were also presented with the four officers ostensibly available to conduct the interview, who varied in gender and age, and asked to rank-order the officers based on their preference for who should conduct the interview. Finally, they were asked to rate the impact of having their preferred interview on their comfort level within the interview and the amount of information they would likely report. Results will help inform police organizations regarding the potential importance of matching interviewees and interviewers on demographic characteristics.


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Day 3 – Friday 28th June, 2019

Auditorium: Auditorium Generalen
Chair: Fiona Gabbert

Abstract Title:

KEYNOTE: Revenge vs Rapport

Authors: Laurence Alison (and, in absentia, Emily Alison, Frances Surmon Bohr & Paul Christiansen, University of Liverpool)

Abstract:
Prof. Alison will discuss the ground-breaking work conducted by his team on the ‘ORBIT’ corpus (Observing Rapport Based Interpersonal Techniques). This contains over 2,000 hours of Law Enforcement interviews conducted with terrorists in the UK. The data base contains AQ, ISIS and XRW cases from 2012-2019 and is the largest data set ever collected of interrogations with individuals convicted of terrorism. Extensive analysis reveals that effective techniques have more in common with humanistic principles and compassionate approaches used in counselling and which seek understanding, non-judgmental acceptance and empathy. Results also reveal that there is no ‘one size fits all approach’ to managing difficult behaviour or ‘creating’ rapport (despite the oft touted notion that it can be reduced to some simple ‘tricks’ that can be ‘used’ on a detainee). As well as briefly discussing the blighted history and stain of torture and coercion that psychologists have left on the profession, he will show, by reference to the work of Rogers, Leary, Miller and Rollnick that there are more subtle and effective rapport based approaches that are legal, ethical and effective. Finally, he will discuss concerns around an emerging literature that suggests rapport can be achieved through various deceptive manipulations and covert social influence tactics that are, he will argue, dangerous long term strategies.

Auditorium: Auditorium Generalen
Chair: JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen

Abstract Title:

Symposium – Investigative interviewing – Mutual informing across research design, laboratory-based research, practice-based research through to training and policy.

Authors: JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen, Barry Parsonson, Nana Burduli, Tamar Mumladze, Tamta Saamishvili

Abstract:
Objectives
The aim of this four paper symposium is to demonstrate the interrelationship between research design, laboratory-based and practice-based interviewing research leading into real-world application in practice, training and policy related to investigative interviewing. The first paper presents a laboratory-based study using a single-subject design across child participants with repeated interviews alternating between open or closed question forms. The data reveal the effect of question forms and repetition on the accuracy of reporting in interview. The second paper describes a practiced based laboratory study in which 30 children participated in interactions with an adult followed by interviews incorporating elements of evidential interview strategies. Three children’s reports were evaluated by professionals for veracity across different question forms and repeat interviews. The third presentation is a case study outlining the risks to obtaining evidential quality information from children when an evidential interviewer deviates from the NICHD Protocol during a formal evidence-gathering interview of two children alleged to have been sexually abused, demonstrating that fidelity in application of evidence-based research is important to effective application in practice. The final presentation reports on an iIIRG funded study aimed at training students and professionals (social workers, lawyers, psychologists) providing services for vulnerable victims or witnesses in the application of a timeline-based interviewing strategy. The data demonstrate changes in use of key interviewing strategies and the benefits of interdisciplinary training in building mutual relationships across different but interrelated disciplines in the context of supporting vulnerable witnesses.

Conference Room 2 (Room 251)
Chair: Gavin Oxburgh

Abstract Title:

Practitioner Case Study – Non-confrontational Interrogation: Constructing the Introductory Statement.

Authors: David Zulawski

Abstract:
The Introductory Statement is the transition between an investigative interview and a non-confrontational interrogation used to help elicit the truth from a guilty subject. The Introductory Statement also allows the investigator to conceal incriminating evidence from the subject and protect the integrity of the investigation and ultimate confession.
The Introductory Statement has an internal structure which begins to move an individual from a point of resistance to one of collaboration building rapport as the investigator uses it. This session will discuss the overall strategy of the Introductory Statement and the underlying building blocks of each of its sections. An actual interrogation will be used to illustrate the approach and its effects on the subject’s behavior and demeanor.

Auditorium Generalen
Chair: JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen

Abstract Title:

Symposium – Investigative interviewing – Mutual informing across research design, laboratory-based research, practice-based research through to training and policy.(contd.)

Authors: JaneMary Castelfranc-Allen, Barry Parsonson, Nana Burduli, Tamar Mumladze, Tamta Saamishvili

Abstract:
The aim of this four paper symposium is to demonstrate the interrelationship between research design, laboratory-based and practice-based interviewing research leading into real-world application in practice, training and policy related to investigative interviewing. The first paper presents a laboratory-based study using a single-subject design across child participants with repeated interviews alternating between open or closed question forms. The data reveal the effect of question forms and repetition on the accuracy of reporting in interview. The second paper describes a practiced based laboratory study in which 30 children participated in interactions with an adult followed by interviews incorporating elements of evidential interview strategies. Three children’s reports were evaluated by professionals for veracity across different question forms and repeat interviews. The third presentation is a case study outlining the risks to obtaining evidential quality information from children when an evidential interviewer deviates from the NICHD Protocol during a formal evidence-gathering interview of two children alleged to have been sexually abused, demonstrating that fidelity in application of evidence-based research is important to effective application in practice. The final presentation reports on an iIIRG funded study aimed at training students and professionals (social workers, lawyers, psychologists) providing services for vulnerable victims or witnesses in the application of a timeline-based interviewing strategy. The data demonstrate changes in use of key interviewing strategies and the benefits of interdisciplinary training in building mutual relationships across different but interrelated disciplines in the context of supporting vulnerable witnesses.

Conference Room 2 (Room 251)
Chair: Gavin Oxburgh

Abstract Title:

Inside the shadows: A practitioner’s view of human source interactions.

Authors: Lee Moffett, Gavin Oxburgh, Steven Watson, & Fiona Gabbert

Abstract:
Over the last two decades there has been an increasing interest from the academic community in relation to human intelligence (HUMINT), and several thematic areas have been identified which are deemed to be most relevant to HUMINT practitioners. However, much of this research has failed to take account of the specific legislative and operational environment of law enforcement officers handling covert human intelligence sources (CHIS) in the United Kingdom (UK). Therefore, this study sought to identify the relative importance of these thematic areas from the perspective of current and former CHIS handlers in the UK. A bespoke online questionnaire was designed and disseminated using purposive and snowball sampling. Thirty-four participants completed the survey. Results indicate that practitioners perceive detecting deception to be the most important thematic area and the one requiring further research. However, when engaging with a CHIS then gaining their cooperation is the handler’s main consideration. Overall, results suggest that handlers adopt a stepwise approach to obtaining information from their CHIS. Implications for future research are discussed.

Abstract Title:

Practitioner Case Study – Using Cognitive Lie Detection Techniques in Child Homicide Investigation.

Authors: Martin Vaughan & Jeffrey Hutcherson

Abstract:
Amelia Jones was 5 weeks old. Her main carer was her mum and grandfather, Mark Jones who regularly cared for the baby on his own whilst encouraging his daughter to socialise. On the 17th November 2012 the child was hospitalised having stopped breathing and within 48 hours of this collapse, she died. Post-mortem revealed three episodes of injury including acute non-accidental head injury. The remaining injuries were consistent with physical abuse.

Following arrest of the carers on suspicion of murder of this child, lengthy interviews took place with no viable explanation surrounding the presentation on injuries. The complexity of this type of investigation centres on the use of medical experts in order to assess timing, causation and the reaction to events leading up to and post trauma.
The investigation took 2 years to complete with numerous phases of interviewing taking place and mum being ruled out as a suspect due to Jones accepting that he was the carer during the medical material time frame.
This presentation will focus on cognitive lie detection techniques used throughout the investigation.
Jones was convicted of Murder and Perverting Course of Justice in 30th April 2015.

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Social Events iIIRG 12th Annual Conference

This year’s programme includes a great range of social events providing a fabulous opportunity for informal networking. 

Networking at the iIIRG conference

When you register you will be asked to identify yourself as (primarily) a researcher or a practitioner.  You will also be asked to select some key interests (e.g. interviewing victims and witnesses; suspect interviewing; training etc.).  We will encourage all attendees to identify their role and key interests by adding coloured stickers to their name badges.

During the conference, you will be able to use these designations to track down practitioners and/or academics who share your interests – and start a conversation. Ideally, all attendees will be able to use this to extend their contacts and broaden their horizons through increased engagement on the topic of investigative interviewing.

To support exciting and productive collaborations between practitioners and academics, IIIRG offers Networking Grants to aid member networking and knowledge exchange.  Full details of these Networking Grants and how to apply for them will be provided at the conference.

Perhaps you might even kick off new collaborations or projects with your new contacts during 2019?

Tuesday 25th June, 2019

Welcome reception  – 6 pm – Restaurant Building/Bar, Norwegian Police University College Conference Centre

From 6pm, there will be a welcome reception at the conference venue.

 

Wednesday 26th June, 2019

Protocol session – Universal protocol on non-coercive interview techniques – 5.30pm

OR

Visit to a Barnahus – 5.30pm

A bus will leave from outside the main building.

The slides from the Barnahus presentation are available here: Barnahus iIIRG 2019 Presentation

 

Student Event – 7.00pm – Conference Centre Bar

Come along to the conference centre bar to meet other students attending the conference!

 

Screening of ‘Eminent Monsters’ – 8.30pm – Auditorium Generalen

‘Do No Harm’ is an abiding principal of psychiatry. It is abandoned time after time in this shocking, utterly compelling exploration of the profession’s collusion with state sponsored torture over the past 70 years. In ‘Eminent Monsters’, Director Stephen Bennett untangles a web of secrecy, denial and complicity to explore the legacy of Scottish-born psychiatrist Dr Ewen Cameron and the experiments that helped devise systems of torture employed across the globe, from Northern Ireland to Guantanamo Bay. Experts, victims and families provide chapter and verse on fundamental violations of human rights.Trailer: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q4C3ALooFn4

Thursday 27th June, 2019

Conference Dinner – 6.30pm – Restaurant Building/Bar, Norwegian Police University College Conference Centre

This year’s conference dinner will take place at the Conference Centre.  A conference dinner ticket is included in your full conference registration fee or some of the day fees for Thursday 27th June.  The menu is available here: Tapas English version

Following tradition, the iIIRG award ceremony will take place during our Conference dinner. Each year, the iIIRG awards its members at any point in their academic or practitioner career who have produced work of outstanding quality and include:

  1. The iIIRG Tom Williamson Award
  2. Practitioner Excellence Award
  3. Academic Excellence Award

More information about the awards can be found here.

Additionally, the iIIRG awards its student members for their work at the conference. This year, there will be a prize for the best piece of student research presented orally at the conference. For more information, visit http://www.iiirg.org/iiirg-s/funding-awards/.

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iIIRG-S

iIIRG Student event

Wednesday 7pm – Student Social. Location: Conference Centre Bar

Come along and meet your fellow students!

 

iIIRG Student Prize

The student prize for the best piece of student research presented orally at the conference will be presented at the conference dinner on Thursday night!

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Sponsors

 

Indico_Logo_with_slogan_WhiteIndico Systems’ solutions are changing the way industries record audio and video and how they store recordings securely and efficiently. For the CJS, Indico Systems has helped improved the performance in suspect, witness and victim interviewing. Over 100 customers around the world, including police, children’s safehouses, courts, military, hospitals, auditors.

http://indicosys.com/ 

 

Interview Managment SolutionsInterview Management Solutions (IMS) are the technology company behind the TILES System®, a digital investigative interviewing planning and management tool.   

 The TILES System® casts a digital footprint across the full PEACE model framework enabling interviewing teams to plan, conduct and evaluate investigative interviews in a truly end to end digital solution.   

IMS are proud to be a UK government Crown Commercial Supplier and boast a growing client user base across several jurisdictions. We are delighted to be returning for our fifth consecutive year as an iIIRG co-sponsor and look forward to meeting delegates at the group’s 11th annual conference in Porto. 

http://interviewmanagementsolutions.com/

 
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Getting Here

This year’s conference will be held at the Norwegian Police University College Conference Centre in Stavern, Norway.

The Norwegian Police University College Conference Centre is located at Fredriksvern Fortress in Stavern, which is 7 km south of the town, Larvik, and 141 km south west of the Norwegian capital Oslo.

Address: Helgeroveien 9, 3290 Stavern

Link to google maps: here

The nearest airport to Stavern is TORP Sandefjord lufthavn.  The IATA airport code is: TRF. We recommend all our delegates to use TRF as the preferred airport for the Stavern Conference.

With regards to transportation between Torp airport and the Conference centre, we are glad to announce that we will provide an alternative by means of bus twice on the arrival dates for the Masterclass (23rd) and the Conference (25th), as well as for departure when the conference is over (28th). We know that people arrive and leave at different times, but we have decided on 2 times per day that is convenient with several relevant flights:

Due to a changed flight, the bus that originally was set to leave Torp on Sunday 23rd at 15:15 will now leave at 16:30 instead. Thus, the buses will run at the following times on Sunday 23rd of June:

  • 16:30
  • 23:30

Tuesday 25th of June

  • 16:30
  • 23:30

From Conference Centre – Torp

Friday 28th of June

  • 12:00
  • 14:15

Please be aware that places on the buses will be allocated on a first come, first served basis on the day.  If the time does not fit your schedule, there are alternatives in terms of public transportation or taxi (for more information, see: https://www.torp.no/en/transport/?lang=en_GB).

The alternative airport to TRF is Oslo airport (OSL).  From OSL it is approximately 190 kilometre (119 miles) to Stavern. The train from OSL (Oslo lufthavn) to Larvik takes about two and a half hours. From Larvik to Stavern it is easy to connect with buses or taxi.

The Venue: Stavern Conference Centre

Stavern is beautifully sighted by the sea with historical surroundings with Fredriksvern Fortress (built in 1750) as the pride of the town. The Conference Centre has 145 en-suite accommodations, fully equipped auditorium-, meeting- and classroom facilities.

To view a short video of the conference centre, click here.

The Conference Centre is a part of the Norwegian Police University College (NPUC). For this conference they have 145 rooms for conference delegates. These rooms are now FULL for the conference.  We are very grateful for the highly subsidised accommodation costs NPUC has provided iIIRG for these rooms. We know this is going to be very well appreciated by our delegates and members.

Local Area of Interest

Stavern has kept its special charm with its narrow streets and old houses. Norway’s smile is one of its nicknames.  Fredriksvern Dockyard is an oasis for visitors in summer.  Surrounded by idyllic skerries, seagulls overhead, and a wealth of activities on offer, Stavern is one of the most popular destinations for tourists and locals alike.

Kyststien (Coastal Path)

Stavern is the perfect place for great coastal experiences. A bicycle ride or a walk on the coastal path is a must. Bicycles are available for hire.

Fredriksvern Verft

Fredriksvern Fort, built in 1750 is the pride of the town. The fort is well worth a visit and also offers art galleries, exhibitions and a small maritime museum.

Art

There are more than 15 art galleries that feature exhibitions during Easter, summer and autumn.

Golf

Fritzoe Gard Golf Course (3km) is an 18 hole course of international standard. Pitch and putt facilities are also available.

For more information about Stavern visit: https://www.visitnorway.com/listings/stavern-and-larvik-event/198392/

 

Further Abroad

For people who are taking the opportunity to stay in Norway for some additional nights, there are several places to go and things to see. Below are some links that might be helpful:
Vestfold (same county as Stavern, including Tønsberg and Sandefjord):
https://www.visitvestfold.com/en/
https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attractions-g190483-Activities-Tonsberg_Tonsberg_Municipality_Vestfold_Eastern_Norway.html
https://www.tripadvisor.com/Attractions-g226938-Activities-Sandefjord_Sandefjord_Municipality_Vestfold_Eastern_Norway.html
Oslo (app. 2 hour drive with car/train):
https://www.visitoslo.com/en/
https://www.tripadvisor.com/Home-g190479
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Masterclass 2019

The iIIRG will be hosting a two-day pre-conference Masterclass from the 24th to the 25th of June 2019.

Intelligence Debriefing: Cooperation, Memory & Elicitation Techniques 

Duration: 2 days

This two-day pre-conference Masterclass will be led by Professor Lorraine Hope and Mr Wayne Thomas. Designed with practitioners in mind, this Masterclass will examine some of the important psychological features to consider when eliciting intelligence information. From basic cognitive and memory factors through to reluctance, cultural challenges, cooperation and contextual pragmatics. The Masterclass will explore the efficacy of investigative interviewing tools and techniques in the intelligence-gathering context and introduce, via interactive exercise, some novel debriefing approaches, including the Timeline Technique.

Who should attend:

  • Policy makers, trainers and practitioners in the fields of investigative and intelligence interviewing
  • Researchers working in the field of applied memory and investigative interviewing

Lorraine Hope is Professor of Applied Cognitive Psychology at the University of Portsmouth and a core member affiliated with the Information Elicitation programme of the UK National Centre for Research and Evidence on Security Threats (CREST) (https://crestresearch.ac.uk). Over the past 20 years, her research has resulted in the development of innovative tools and techniques, informed by psychological science and practitioner need, for eliciting information and intelligence across a range of investigative contexts (e.g. Timeline Technique, Self-administered Interview, Structured Interview Protocol). In terms of impact, she regularly delivers tools, research, evaluation and training for investigative interviewing and information elicitation in international policing, intelligence and security sectors, including for inter- and multi-national agencies.

Wayne Thomas is a research psychologist with 29 years of operational experience. He spent 12 years as a UK police detective, specializing in the investigation of serious and organized crime and the use of covert policing methods. This was followed by 17 years working in counterterrorism investigations around the world.

 

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Masterclass Programme

Monday 24th June – Day 1: Considering Cooperation and Motivation: Getting someone talking

8:00am Registration opens
9:00am Introduction and Overview
9:30am Opening the box: Challenges and Opportunities in Intelligence Debriefing
10:15am EXERCISE: Preparing and Planning
10:45am Morning break and tea/coffee
11:00am What do people mean when they say ‘I don’t know’?
12.00pm Lunch
1:00pm Preparation at the Front End: Considering Culture and Social Relations
1:45pm First Impressions – Tailoring, Preparing and Perspective Taking
2:30pm Afternoon break and tea/coffee
3:00pm EXERCISE: Tailoring, Preparing and Perspective Taking
3:45pm Review & Questions
4:00pm End of Day
5:00pm DINNER

Tuesday 25th June – Day 2: Accessing information: “I want to talk. What do you want to know?”

8:30am Registration opens
9:00am Recap of Day 1 & Overview of Day 2
9:15am Eliciting accounts from Memory in the Intelligence Gathering Context: Introduction to the Timeline Technique
10:15am EXERCISE: Timeline Technique Debriefing
11:00am Morning break and tea/coffee
11:15am Using the Timeline Technique for Extended Debriefing [+ EXERCISE]
12:30pm Lunch
1:30pm Extending the Timeline Technique to collection additional information
2:30pm Afternoon break and tea/coffee
3:00pm Interpreting and Maximising Timeline Reporting in Practice
4:00pm End of Masterclass
5:00pm DINNER
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